## Determining the heat capacity of honey at home

For this, your final home experiment which will contribute to your final report you are to design and carry out an experiment at home to determine the heat capacity of honey at home.

## Determining the heat capacity of honey at home

The average heat capacity of a substance can be determined at home by determining the rate of heat transfer from a hot plate at a fixed setting to a quantity of substance with known heat capacity e.g. water which has a heat capacity of 4190 J/kg/K, where the same (cooled) container is used to make the measurements for both substances.

For this, your final home experiment which will contribute to your final report you are to design and carry out an experiment at home to determine the heat capacity of honey at home.

### Your equipment list should include:

300-500 g of honey

500 g of water

Small cooking pot (1 litre)

Stopwatch App

Candy Thermometer (check its temperature range first)

House stove (if you do not have one, visit a friend)

Digital Scales

Candy thermometers are to click onto the side of a saucepan as shown. They should not touch the bottom of the pan. Your liquid should stay just on the bottom mark (usually 30oC) so you can see the scale (weigh your liquid). The lowest value on a candy is 30oC so you will not be able to measure below this temperature. Does this matter? that do you need to measure for this experiment to work out heat transfer and heat capacity?

#### Useful formula: Rate of heat transfer, H in J/s, is given by:

dT
H mc
dt

Where m is the mass of substance in kg, c the heat capacity in J/kg/C, T the temperature in degrees celcius, and t, time in seconds.
Compare your specific heat to the accepted values for honey: 2268 J/kg/K – 2520 J/kg/K. How specific heat is normally measured?
Safety First
Honey is capable of boiling over, do not go above temperatures of 100oC.
Honey also has a much lower heat capacity than water therefore will heat more quickly so pay attention. Please don’t touch the pan if it is heat ed up. MAKE SURE ADDING GRAPH AND THE TABLE ON THE RESULT PART

## Define pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

Define pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Compare pharmacokinetics VS pharmacodynamics. Describe why the focus is on in vivo preclinical pharmacokinetic screening in support of drug discovery.

## Define pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

1.      Define pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
2.      Compare pharmacokinetics VS pharmacodynamics.
3.      Describe why the focus is on in vivo preclinical pharmacokinetic screening in support of drug discovery.
4.      List the multiple barriers which can affect oral bioavailability,
5.      List the barriers that can reduce drug exposure at the therapeutic target.

More details;

### Pharmacokinetics versus Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacology is the study of the interactions between drugs and the body. The two broad divisions of pharmacology are pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics (PK) refers to the movement of drugs through the body, whereas pharmacodynamics (PD) refers to the body’s biological response to drugs.

PK describes a drug’s exposure by characterizing absorption, distribution, bioavailability, metabolism, and excretion as a function of time. PD describes drug response in terms of biochemical or molecular interactions.

Understanding the exposure-response relationship (PK/PD) is key to the development and approval of every drug. PK and PD data contribute to much of what is on a drug package insert. Strategic planning of the overall program for a drug and intelligent pharmacokinetic study design can speed the development process.

#### PK and PD Analyses are used to:

• Characterize drug exposure: With the exception of drugs delivered intravenously, only a fraction of a drug’s dose is absorbed and pharmacologically active. Quantifying the rate and magnitude of exposure to a drug is critical for determining how best to guide its use in the clinic.
• Predict dosage requirements: PK/PD modeling can help predict dosing requirements early in the development process, making the first dose-range finding studies more informative and consequential.
• Assess changes in dosage requirements: Predicting the biological effect of small dosing changes is important early in the development process, when alterations and formulation changes are common.
• Estimate rate of elimination and rate of absorption: Knowing how quickly a drug is absorbed and eliminated can help make decisions regarding formulation design and dosing regimens.
• Assess relative bioavailability / bioequivalence: Comparing the extent of a new formulation’s absorption to an existing formulation can often help demonstrate therapeutic advantages.
• Characterize intra- and inter-subject variability: High variability can quickly derail clinical development programs. Understanding how a drug’s PK and PD change within and between individuals can help design clinical trials in ways that reduce variability and make the results more robust.
• Understand concentration-effect relationships: The concentration-effect relationship is the cornerstone of pharmacodynamics. Identifying the variables that affect the relationship is critical for a successful development program.
• Establish safety margins and efficacy characteristics: Successful drugs have clearly defined therapeutic windows. PK/PD modeling can help determine dosing thresholds. Sola dosis facit venenum… “The dose makes the poison.”

## In the AWC Fellows Strategy Research Project

In the AWC Fellows Strategy Research Project There is an identity crisis in SF – Who are Green Berets supposed to be? Click for more options, COL Croot argues that SF has an identity crisis and provides recommendations to remedy the situation.

## In the AWC Fellows Strategy Research Project

1. In the AWC Fellows Strategy Research Project There is an identity crisis in SF – Who are Green Berets supposed to be? Click for more options, COL Croot argues that SF has an identity crisis and provides recommendations to remedy the situation.
2. Task. You are tasked by your commander to review the document and provide a summary of the Issues and recommendations forwarded by COL Croot.

3. Format: IAW USASOC Memo 1-11

4. Font: 12pt / Times New Roman

5. Pages: No more than two (2) pages

More details;

A future conflict with a near peer in a contested, multi-domain battlefield will create a
complex operational environment, exposing capability gaps for the U.S. Army. Our
otential adversaries have capabilities to operate in all domains and can be expect to
exploit U.S. vulnerabilities resulting in an anti-access / area denial battlefield (A2AD).
Our ability to evacuate casualties to a higher level of care and the capability needed to
treat the casualties at the point of injury does not exist for an A2AD scenario.

Given this prolonged care capability gap, the Army needs to assess, adapt, and reorganize
medical assets to better support the force. Medical capabilities at the Role 1 must be
increased to mitigate death in the future A2AD operational environment. The paper
proposes leadership actions to influence doctrine, policies and laws, force structure
reform of medical personnel authorizations to increase medical capability at the point of
injury, and essential training in critical skills needed to save the most lives possible in
prolonged care scenarios at Role 1.