This notion may be strengthened by the present use of must have rather than the past. Form: Students may incorrectly replace the past participle with the base form of the verb (she must have go out). Must have becomes contracted in spoken form, becoming / mast VA /. If the As don’t recognize this contraction, they may pronounce the full form / mast HP I, therefore producing unnatural sounding speech. This full form would most likely be used due to the As pre – existing knowledge of how must have appears in formal written form.
Receptively, the As may not even recognize the contracted form at all, resulting in them hearing “she must get out” a) Students may confuse the meaning of the form since they will be more familiar with the use of must as a modal verb to express obligation (must can’t be used to express obligation in he past). B) Must is used for all persons: students might add an -s for the third person singular. Must is always followed by the base form of the verb. Students might add ‘to” (“must to have gone”). ) Students may have difficulties understanding that the form expresses deduction about the past since the use of the perfect infinitive puts the proposition, and not the modality in the past. D) Students may assume that must is also used in the negative and question clauses of the form. Pronunciation problems will arise with speakers of those languages whose phonology does not have weak forms: must and have will be both stressed instead of the lexical verb. Needn’t have got up so early. Meaning: Needn’t is short for need not.
This action happened in the past. I got up early but it wasn’t necessary. Form: 1+ needn’t have got up Subject +need not+ have +verb (past participle) There is a contracted negative needn’t Pronunciation: /in:. Dana/: needn’t (2 syllables with stress on the first) have (weak form) /VA/ Sac’s: 1 Did I get up early? (Yes) 8. Was it necessary? (No) 9. Did I know that before? (No) 10. Did I think it was necessary? (Yes) 11. Did I wake up on time, late or long before time? (long before time) 12. Did he action happen in the past or the present? Past) Anticipated problems: Students may confuse need as an ordinary verb to have to have (something) very much or to want (something) very much and need as a modal verb. As with other modal verbs, there is no “s” with the 3rd person singular, and questions and negatives are made without “do”. Students may not understand this and may make these mistakes. Students may add to and don’t??? I’ve been waiting here for 20 minutes: ‘eve been working: elements of meaning and use. The Present Perfect Continuous(Progressive) is in this case used for an action which started in the past and is still going on now.
The action has started in a time frame that is not over yet (today). We use the continuous form of the Present Perfect to stress the continuous (non-stop) nature of the action. This tense can also be used to talk about events that have stopped, but whose effects are still continuing. Yet, the emphasis is on the event itself as a progressive, extended activity, not on the results. Anticipated problems a) Students may confuse the use of the Simple Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous. They may fail to understand how the two forms focus on different aspects of an action: the result and the continuity. B) Speakers of romance languages may find it difficult to produce the Tense since English is unique in using a Tense to talk about actions that started in the past and continue into the present time. Mistakes such as “He’s working for the whole day’ or “He works for the whole day’ are very common. C) Learners may overaggressive the rule and use the continuous form of the Present Perfect with state-verbs such as know or believe.
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