child observation essay research paper general descriptioncody

Child Observation Essay, Research Paper

General Description

Buffalo bill is an eight-year-old male child diagnosed with autism. Buffalo bill tends to perseverant on things that are unsafe. He frequently verbalizes “ glass is unsafe, it cuts your oculus, name 211, go to the hospital. ” Cody besides tends to gaze off into infinite and is socially inappropriate.

Buffalo bill had been placed in badly disabled schoolrooms that consisted of kids with terrible cognitive and physical disablements. Buffalo bill was provided with a one to one adjutant through BCRC.

Presently, Cody is in a new plan designed for kids with autism. The pupil to teacher ratio is two to one. The stimulation in the schoolroom has been reduced to a lower limit to supply an appropriate acquisition environment.

Buffalo bill is non able to place letters or Numberss. It has been reported that Cody had terrible behaviour jobs that became the focal point of his educational ends instead than faculty members. Buffalo bill appears to hold good auditory processing accomplishments and demonstrates this through his ability to go to to narratives that are read to him. He is able to inquire inquiries about the narrative and reply comprehension inquiries. His ocular processing accomplishments seem to be low ; he is non able to follow lines or discriminate forms.

Buffalo bill needs to be taught harmonizing to his larning modes. I believe that Cody should concentrate on faculty members, as his behaviour in this new environment seems to be under control.

Choice of Skills


Buffalo bill has demonstrated that he is able to larn. He has picked up many scientific discipline constructs from listening to narratives. Harmonizing to the psychologist his IQ has been identified in the low mean scope. Books appear to be natural reinforces for Buffalo bill. He would bask being able to read to himself. It is for this ground that I believe that learning Cody to read would heighten his quality of life.


At back to school dark, I met with Cody ’ s ma. At that clip, I asked her to believe about what she would wish Cody to be able to make in a twelvemonth. She instantly responded that she and her hubby had ever hoped that Cody would larn to read. She reported that old experiences with his instructor had led them to concentrate on self-help and behavioural ends.

Buffalo bill loves to listen to narratives. It is used as a wages in the schoolroom. He prefers to look at a book over anything else in the schoolroom. For these grounds, parent interview and schoolroom observations, I have chosen to learn Cody pre-reading accomplishments.

Operational Definition

Due to clip restraints, I will concentrate on learning Buffalo bill to place the letters a, B, degree Celsius, vitamin D, and T and to bring forth the phonological sound. After he has mastered the sound with symbol, I will concentrate on intermixing the sounds to bring forth harmonic vowel consonant words ( cat, chiropteran, at ) . Mastery will dwell of 80 % truth over seven yearss. These undertakings will be individual measure.

This information will generalise for Buffalo bill because he has a natural love for books. Once he has mastered a few sounds, he will be able to read a short a book on his ain.

Undertaking Analysis Method

The undertaking that I chose for Cody is a individual measure undertaking. A fictile missive is placed in forepart of Cody. He picks up the missive, feels it. After experiencing the missive he identifies it. After hearing himself place the missive, he makes the appropriate manus mark. While experiencing the manus mark, he makes the phonological sound.


I assessed Buffalo bill in three different ways. The first was to measure his expressive cognition of the alphabet. This was done by puting fictile letters of the alphabet in forepart him and bespeaking him to call it. The prejudiced stimulation was “ It ’ s the missive ” . Buffalo bill was non able to right place any letters of the alphabet. I tested his receptive cognition by puting the plastic letters on the table in-groups of five and inquiring him to “ Give me A ” and so on. He falsely identified the letters. The appraisal was done four times for receptive cognition and four times for expressive cognition. The baseline informations for each country was 0. See appendix for the assessment signifier.

I besides assessed Cody utilizing the undertaking analysis assessment signifier. Buffalo bill was able to follow the fictile missive independently three of the four times. He required a verbal prompt of “ It ’ s the letter__ ” to place the missive. He required full physical prompt to do the corresponding manus mark. Once he felt the manus mark, he was able to do the right missive sound three out of four times.


During the appraisal, Cody sat at a u shaped tabular array confronting me. His dorsum was to the remainder of the pupils in order to minimise distraction. The appraisal took topographic point in the schoolroom.


Buffalo bill received a + if he gave the right response and a – if he gave an wrong response. A three-second-time hold was utilized before supplying a prompt. The appraisals were broken down into ten-minute Sessionss. No more than three Sessionss per twenty-four hours.

Trial Presentation

Five tests were presented during each appraisal session for the undertaking analysis. Buffalo bill was given a verbal cue of “ choice it up ” when he did non react to the missive on the tabular array. A verbal prompt of “ It ’ s the letter__ ” was used when Buffalo bill did non call the missive. A full physical prompt was utilised when he did non do the manus mark. Modeling was used when he could non bring forth the sound. Correct responses were rewarded with an M & A ; M. Incorrect responses were stopped instantly utilizing a full physical prompt and mold.

Appraisal and Data Collection Forms

See Appendix for Forms

Analysis of Assessment Data

When provided prompts, Cody was able to execute the accomplishment. Each appraisal consisted of five tests. During the first appraisal session, Cody was unable to execute any of the accomplishments due to behavior. He stared off into infinite or yelled. Over the following four yearss, he was able to transport out the accomplishments with 90 % truth. This is merely for the missive a. Initially, I assessed Cody ’ s receptive cognition of the alphabet by puting the plastic letters in forepart of him and inquiring him to give me the letter__ . He was non able to right place any of the letters. I repeated this procedure by passing him a plastic missive and inquiring him to expressively place it. He was unable to expressively place any of the letters. This was done in the same scene as the undertaking analysis appraisal. See appendix

The appraisal was presented as a game as Cody was loath after the first session to seek. I placed M & A ; M ’ s on the tabular array and gave him 1 for each right response regardless of the prompt used.


Based upon informations from the undertaking analysis, I formed the undermentioned hypothesis. *Cody is unable to execute the undertaking due to ocular processing shortages. I will utilize fictile letters to turn to his kinaesthetic acquisition mode.

*Cody is unable to execute the undertaking because he has non been exposed to the information. I will utilize suggestion, pattern and expose him to the information.

*Cody is unable to execute the undertaking due to interfering behaviours. I will work with Cody on “ custodies quiet ” so that he can go to to the information.


Given fictile letters, and manus marks, Cody will place the letters a, B, degree Celsius, vitamin D, and T with 70 % truth.

Given manus marks, Cody will do the phonological

sound for the letters a, B, degree Celsius, vitamin D, and T with 70 % truth.

Teaching Scheme


Based on the PEPR and Criterion Referenced Assessments, Cody is emerging in the class of alphabet acknowledgment. I am using a individual measure undertaking scheme and mated associate acquisition. Buffalo bill will place certain letters in the alphabet and partner off them with the phonological sound finally intermixing these sounds to organize harmonic vowel consonant words. I am utilizing ocular phonics which pairs each phoneme with a manus mark ( see appendix ) . The letters used for this undertaking were a, B, degree Celsius, vitamin D, and t. It is of import that the presentation of information is short and clear necessitating few stairss, as he is loath to try new undertakings. This is apparent by his behaviour ( declining to look at the undertaking, gazing into infinite ) .

The order of tests presented for this undertaking is consecutive preparation. It is more effectual to show a short vowel sound foremost and so easy to add consonants. This will let the pupil to get down to read after larning a few letters. The constellation is one pupil per instructor meeting day-to-day with the support of accomplishments in a group puting. The order that the accomplishment is presented is consecutive. An initial vowel is presented followed by consonants. Practice is conducted individually in a mass test. The information is drilled. Its the missive A, A says a. Data is recorded daily.

Motivating Scheme

Hand over Hand





My motivating scheme began from most to least with a three-second-time hold because I wanted Buffalo bill to see success instantly. I began with a full physical prompt utilizing my manus over his to do marks for the letters. We have faded to a gesture and verbal prompt. The following measure will be to cut down the prompt to a verbal prompt and so no prompt.

Mistake Correction

Incorrect responses are prevented. If it appears that Buffalo bill is traveling to give an wrong response, I will organize the manus mark with my manus over his and do the right sound. If he does do an mistake, I go through same process followed by immediate pattern with in turn faded aid. Buffalo bill requires immediate feedback as he will think without looking. This is noted on the information sheets.


Through observation and treatments with Codys parents, it was determined that Cody enjoys M & A ; M ’ s and listening to narratives. Cody enjoys books ; they are a natural support. His parents want him to larn to read so they are really supportive and reenforce his attempts at place. Cody besides enjoys congratulations. Reinforcement is immediate following the right response. When he gives the right response it is followed with a light touch, verbal congratulations and an M & A ; M. He is rewarded with a narrative daily. Reinforcement is on a fixed agenda.

Environmental Agreement

The environmental agreement is designed to minimise ocular distractions. Materials are placed out of position of the pupils. Few objects are on the walls and the furniture is arranged to specify countries of the room. Buffalo bill works at two different countries in the room in order to advance generalisation. He works with me at a u molded tabular array. We face each other maintaining all other pupils behind him. The accomplishments from the distinct test scene are so reinforced during circle clip, which is located in another portion of the room.


The stuffs used with Cody consist of plastic letters, missive cards and M & A ; M ’ s. The plastic letters used during the distinct test are placed straight in forepart of him. He picks up the missive, identifies it, and makes the manus mark and the right sound. This is instantly rewarded with an M & A ; M. Letter cards are used during circle, nevertheless they are besides placed in forepart of him. Buffalo bill looks at the card, makes the manus mark and the sound. He receives an M & A ; M for the right response.


I began utilizing missive cards with Buffalo bill and he was non able to visually know apart the letters. I adapted this scheme to holding him follow the missive on a big piece of paper, nevertheless this scheme besides proved debatable with his hapless ocular favoritism. This scheme was so adapted to utilizing plastic letters which he can pick up and experience, paired with a manus mark. This has been really successful. After he has learned the missive, I use a missive card and the manus mark during circle and he has been able to generalise the information from the fictile missive to the card.

Data Collection

The prejudiced stimulation, staff-prompting measure, pupil response, and rectification scheme are noted on the informations aggregation sheet ( see appendix ) . The SD is “ It ’ s the letter__ , __ says __ . The prompt measure is for the staff to do the manus mark for the missive. The pupil response is to supply the name of the missive and the phonological sound. The rectification scheme is to halt Buffalo bill before he makes a error by organizing his manus into the right mark and doing the sound with him. The support is congratulations and an M & A ; M.

The information sheet has all of the information written at the top of the page to keep consistence across the staff. Correct responses are recorded as a + , wrong responses are recorded as a – . The responses are recorded over 10 tests and so the per centum is equated and recorded.

Evaluation of the Strategy

Based on the information ( see appendix ) , I believe this scheme has been effectual. Due to Cody ’ s jobs with ocular favoritism, the manus marks seem to prompt him to do the right response. Buffalo bill averaged a right response rate of about 70 % .


I believe that I progressed excessively easy and lost his involvement. On October 30th, per your suggestion, I increased the sum of letters and he responded rather good. Initially, I wanted an truth rate of 80 % over seven yearss. Unfortunately, he seemed to lose involvement and his tonss dropped. I will go on to present new letters and sounds when he has a 70 % truth rate two yearss in a row.

The ocular phonics appears to be a successful attack with Cody. No alterations were made in the presentation of the accomplishment. Alterations in the informations aggregation sheet were made on October 8th. The new sheet clearly states the SD, pupil response, prompt degree, and rectification scheme, which helps, maintains consistence throughout the tests.


The accomplishment ab initio was taught in a distinct test method. I drilled Buffalo bill at a tabular array. The accomplishment was so brought to circle. Different staff Teachs during circle clip. This manner Cody was required to bring forth the accomplishment for different people. The stuffs varied. Fictile letters were ab initio used during the tests ; missive cards were used during the circle clip. The puting varied every bit good. Circle clip occurred in a different country of the room from the test. Buffalo bill besides produced the accomplishment while he was being read to. During a narrative, the staff would indicate to a missive a make the mark and the sound with Cody.

I requested that Cody pattern the accomplishment at place nevertheless, I am non certain that his parents followed through.


This experience with Cody was disputing. I am thrilled with the result. An unexpected result from this undertaking was happening that my other pupils picked up the ocular phonics. The full category is now on the acquisition to read train. It is really exciting!

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