Comprehensive understanding of the properties of organic compounds

Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of the properties of organic compounds. Answer each section with as much relevant information as possible.

Comprehensive understanding of the properties of organic compounds

Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of the properties of organic compounds. Answer each section with as much relevant information as possible.

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ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ESSENTIAL TO HUMAN FUNCTIONING

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

Firstly, identify four types of organic molecules essential to human functioning

Secondly, explain the chemistry behind carbon’s affinity for covalently bonding in organic compounds

Thirdly, provide examples of three types of carbohydrates, and identify the primary functions of carbohydrates in the body

Fourthly, discuss four types of lipids important in human functioning

Further, describe the structure of proteins, and discuss their importance to human functioning

Additionally, identify the building blocks of nucleic acids, and the roles of DNA, RNA, and ATP in human functioning

Organic compounds typically consist of groups of carbon atoms covalently bonded to hydrogen, usually oxygen, and often other elements as well. Created by living things, they are found throughout the world, in soils and seas, commercial products, and every cell of the human body. The four types most important to human structure and function are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. Before exploring these compounds, you need to first understand the chemistry of carbon.

THE CHEMISTRY OF CARBON

What makes organic compounds ubiquitous is the chemistry of their carbon core. Recall that carbon atoms have four electrons in their valence shell, and that the octet rule dictates that atoms tend to react in such a way as to complete their valence shell with eight electrons. Carbon atoms do not complete their valence shells by donating or accepting four electrons. Instead, they readily share electrons via covalent bonds. Commonly, carbon atoms share with other carbon atoms, often forming a long carbon chain referred to as a carbon skeleton.

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