Eating Disorders Eating disorders are a result of an individual who has dissatisfaction about his or her weight and will go to excessive lengths to maintain his or her appearance (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). Wanting to maintain a certain weight so that one can become a model or involve themselves in an extracurricular activity in school are just a couple of influences in which can drive an eating disorder. Anorexia nervous is an eating disorder where individuals are afraid of gaining weight and refuse to maintain a body weight at least 85% of what is noninsured to be normal (Hansel & Dammar, 2008).
The biological component of eating disorders explains that genetics, imbalance of hormonal and neurotransmitters, and structural brain abnormalities contribute to the cause of eating disorders (Hansel’ & Dammar, 2008). After further research, the hormonal and neurotransmitter imbalance has been explained as both the cause and result Of eating disorders. For example, the hormones lepton and gherkin are both at abnormal levels when an individual is suffering from an eating disorder but when the individual has either gained weight or maintained a healthy weight, the hormonal levels return to normal (Hansel & Dammar, 2008)..
The hormonal abnormalities would seem to be more off result rather than the cause of such disorders. The psychodrama explanation of eating disorders is influenced by the findings of Hilled Burch. Burch suggests that individual’s suffering from anorexia is into satisfying the needs of others by living up to the standards set by others (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). Living through the eyes of another person, leaves the individual with no self-efficacy.
The cognitive-behavioral approach to eating corridors have found that anorexia and bulimia are the result of negative thought processes and repetitive experiences that have led to behaviors of eating disorders (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). Both anorexia and bulimia are maintained by dichotomous reasoning about food and weight (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). Substance Abuse Substance abuse is a disorder where an individual becomes dependent on their drug of choice and his or her everyday functioning becomes affected by the substance use (Hansel & Dammar, 2008).
The drug has become the main focus for an addict. People become addicted to drugs because he or she is trying to reach that first experience of pleasure each time he or she experiments with their drug of choice. It will take more of the drug to feel the way they did when they first tried the drug. The biological component of substance abuse focuses on genetic factors as one of the main contributors to this disorder. There have been twin studies that explain alcohol addiction can be passed down through the genes (Hansel & Dammar, 2008).
Studies show that genetics determine that a person can become addicted to alcohol such faster than the average person; however, this theory depends on each person (Hansel & oar-nor, 2008). T here are three categories of the behavioral theory that explains substance abuse. The three categories include operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and social learning or modeling (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). Operant conditioning explains that individual use or misuse drugs because drugs are a way of coping with stressful situations (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). In alcoholism, there are individuals who experience early onset or late onset of addiction.
People who experience late onset of alcoholism turn to drugs because of a life changing situation such as the loss of a loved one (Cummings, Bride, Cassia, & Rawlins, 2008). Turning to drugs seems as a reward to the individual going through tough ordeals (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). In classical conditioning, individuals thrive on environmental factors to help motivate continued use (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). For example, an individual who lives in a neighborhood where the drug seller also resides can greatly influence a continued drug use. The last category is social learning.
A child observes a parent or a close relative use drugs to cope with stress and as this child grows up, he or she believes that a specific drug IS used for that purpose and will use later in life if presented in that same situational context (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). The cognitive approach to substance misuse assumes that negative thought processes contribute to drug abuse. Negative cognitive schemas are formed and negative automatic thoughts follow (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). Just like the behavioral approach, the cognitive approach states that social learning is a great influence on alcohol use.
Children learn from their parents by observing and imitating their behavior making children at risk for drug use later in life. The cognitive explanation adds that dysfunctional cognitions may also develop from observing their parents misuse (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). The psychodrama theory views substance misuse as a result of underlying issues the client may be experiencing (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). Drug misuse is considered to be a way of coping with a horrific experience that the client has not completely overcome.
Therapist concludes that patients are self- educating themselves with their drug of choice rather than seeking the proper help to assist with overcoming their traumatic experience (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). One of the most used defense mechanism among drug abusers is denial. Abusers often deny that they have a problem as a way to continue their drug use (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). Personality Disorders “Personality disorders are characterized by rigid, extreme, and maladaptive personality traits” (Hansel & Dammar, 2008, p. 410). There are 10 personality disorders listed in the ADSM-IV-TRY in which are divided into three clusters.
Cluster A consists of odd or eccentric personality disorders. Cluster B consists of dramatic, emotional, and erratic personality disorders. Cluster C consist of anxious or fearful personality disorders. The following passages will explain the paranoid personality disorder with respect to three theoretical perspectives. The psychodrama theory of paranoid personality disorder focuses on relationships that may have been problematic while growing up (Hansel’ & Dammar, 2008). For example, a child may not have had the best relationship with his or her father. The father may have criticized and militate the child throughout his or her childhood.
When he or she is in adulthood, they are not trusting of others and assume that others will criticize or humiliate him or her. The cognitive-behavioral approach believes that personality disorders develop from early childhood experiences just as the psychodrama theory states (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). Childhood teachings such as what mother and father may have taught to him or her will use that advice and misapply it to later situations in life using their (Hansel & Dammar, 2008). People with paranoid personality disorder also try to get certain actions from people as evidence to support a belief of the paranoid person.
For example, a paranoid person is in a relationship and believes that his or her partner may be “cheating” on him. The paranoid person nags at his or her partner about his beliefs of infidelity. As a reaction, the partner gets angry and decides to leave. That is the proof needed for the paranoid person to support the belief that his partner cannot be trusted and was definitely cheating. Gutenberg, Colluding, and Walker (2010) suggest that this type of individual is indeed jealous about his or her partners loyalty and will continue o have problems confiding in others as a result of the paranoid personality disorder.
In conclusion, eating, substance abuse, and personality are disorders of abnormal behavior and fit the description of impairment and signs of distress. Individuals suffering from substance abuse and eating disorders have biological explanations to the cause of such disorders. In contrast, personality disorders do not have biological factors. Personality disorders have proven to be developed as early as childhood as theorists cannot define personality disorders with the use of genetics because people re not born with personality disorders.
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