gender in international relations essay research paper

The essay, “ Mafiosi and Terrorists: Italian Women in Violent Organizations, ” by Alison Jamieson, discusses the function adult females have played in violent organisations in Italy. Despite male exclusivity and dictatorship, adult females involved in such organisations have come a long manner in widening the skylines of female influence in disposal and commercial functions. The paper looks at, analyzes and compares two chief violent organisations in Italy, the left-of-center terrorist Red Brigades and the Sicilian Mafia.

The Italian feminist motion of the sixtiess spurred a new thrust toward female activity in violent organisations on the utmost left side. “ For the bulk of adult females disciples, the women’s rightist cause was an terminal in itself, but within the turning combativeness of the extra-parliamentary Left it was a political exercising land for a more extremist conflict and more utmost methods. ” ( Jamieson 53 ) By take a firm standing on a separate individuality and a set of demands that intentionally excluded work forces, adult females paved their manner to higher standing in the extra-parliamentary left. Jamieson besides remarks that mainstream feminism involves encompassing a broader set of ends that explicitly required the usage of force.

The battle for female equality and dominance in a male dominated society took a great attempt and involved a great battle. Many adult females joined the armed battle non merely to convey down capitalist society, but besides to contend the return of fascism. Susanna Ronconi of the Red Brigades “ recalls that the pick to abandon the women’s rightist group in which she had militated overtly in favour of clandestine armed battle had been peculiarly hard because it implied interrupting off all contact with her female parent, who had shared some of her non-conformist views. ” ( Jamieson 54-55 ) The pick to come in the Red Brigades non merely intend giving outside household ties, but taking to busy yourself twenty-four hours after twenty-four hours, forenoon boulder clay dark with political, organisational, and violent affairs. However, the Red Brigades justify the usage of force as an inevitable and necessary get downing point in the procedure of social alteration. It is the manner in which they achieve their end, by changing society to be more suited for their wants and demands.

As female engagement increased in the Red Brigades, one would believe their influence would increase every bit good. Though former female members of the Red Brigades study that gender equality was maintained in the organisation, it has been proven that no adult female had of all time sat on the Brigades ’ strategy-making organic structure. Not to state that there was any distinguishable favoritism, but work forces were surely listened to more. However, “ gender per Se does non needfully seem to hold determined differenced in attitudes to the exercising of force, which were the merchandise of single character and experience. ” ( Jamieson 56 ) If a adult female had the will to execute in such violent state of affairss, they found the manner to do it go on.

On the other side of the graduated table was the right-winged Sicilian Mafia or the Cosa Nostra. “ Whereas the Italian adult female terrorist adopted a consciously overdone base against institutional and social paternal

doctrine, the adult females of Cosa Nostra have remained trapped inside traditional behavioural patterns.” ( Jamieson 58 ) Womans of the Cosa Nostra can non take part straight in Acts of the Apostless of force nor can they keep decision-making places in the hierarchy of the organisation. Despite this, adult females play a function in this entirely male organisation through the rank of their hubbies, male parents and boies.

Womans are non allowed rank for they are perceived as untrusty due to their “ unreason and unmanageable emotion. ” ( Jamieson 60 ) However, adult females exhibit a kind of self-denial, trueness and forfeit that are important to their function within the Mafia universe. Womans hold the reins of a strategic map in Mafia dealingss, associating together two kins through matrimony and objectively reenforcing kin strength. During the late seventiess and early 1980s, adult females were important in the conveyance and trafficking of drugs across the Atlantic, which meant big amounts of money for the Mafia. Women of the Mafia play a minimum function in the mundane life and traffics of the Mafia organisation.


It is obvious that there is more female engagement in the Red Brigades organisation than in the Sicilian Mafia. Women in the Mafia had no function except the married woman, female parent, or girl of members and the occasional illegal aid. However, in the Red Brigades, adult females made a interruption through with their influence and turning power.

Though the Red Brigades was a male dominated organisation, the feminist motion of the late sixtiess introduced a strong female population. At a clip when emotions were running high for adult females ’ s rights, it is imaginable that adult females would be pushed to the extreme. Violent organisations meant power and victory against the male-dominated capitalist and perchance fascist society. Womans were looking for a voice, rights they could claim as their ain. This and more is what they saw in a great and powerful violent organisation. The power to do their voices heard and to alter society, to hold positive effects for adult females. It was a battle, one they could win, with the aid of the organisation ’ s power and force. I believe this is what fueled these Italian adult females to prosecute in such non-feminine actions.

Womans of the Cosa Nostra had wholly different motivations, their engagement is organisational force. These adult females were associated with the Mafia through their male dealingss ; father, hubbies, and boies. Some adult females were born into the Mafia, harvesting all the benefits, wealths and celebrity, without any of the attempt or labour. Others married into the organisation, get downing a household centered on the Mafia life style. These adult females genuinely had nil to make with the organisation, though, except to get married two kins together and unite them or to hold boies who would go members. Such adult females merely reaped the benefits of Mafia association instead than working for their addition.

Both the Cosa Nostra and the Red Brigades represent two different types of female engagement. While the Red Brigades promote female engagement and association, the Cosa Nostra respects female passiveness. However, the Red Brigades represents much stronger female rank and action, hence typifying the prototype of female engagement in Italian violent organisations.

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