History Lesson 10

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Lesson Objectives:

  • Identify the leaders in the Latin American Revolution
  • Identify key events that inspired the Latin American Revolutions
  • Identify key figures who aided and hindered the Latin American Revolutions

Latin America provided Spain with vast riches and almost total power. Spain took advantage of the people living in their colonies and exploited the natural resources. The Creole population was very angry over the interference from the European governments. Seeing the successes of the French and American Revolutions, Latin Americans saw the chance to revolt against Spain and France. Like other revolutions, the revolutions that the Latin Americans planned were violent. Toussaint l’Overture, Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, and Father Hidalgo would become known as the Founding Fathers of Latin American nations

Toussaint l’Overture (Tu-san lu-ver-tur) was a freed slave that led the people of Haiti in their fight for independence from France in 1803. In Europe, Napoleon conquered Spain in 1808. Spanish colonists in Latin America refused to accept French rule, and they began revolutionary movements in South American. Napoleon was finally defeated in 1814 and the Spanish king was restored, but the Spanish empire in Latin American was gone. From Argentina in the south to Mexico in the north, colonists gained their freedom from their European masters.

The South American colonists were led by two men, Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin. Bolivar led the revolts in the northern part of South America and San Martin led the revolts in the southern part of South America. These two men joined forces to fight and gain independence for South Americans.

Father Miguel Hidalgo led the people of Mexico in their fight against Spain, but he would not live to see Mexico become an independent republic, which happened in 1824. Mexico was an unstable republic, and due to this, lost half of its republic to Texas. Texas became in independent republic before joining the United States.

When Napoleon was defeated in Europe, the monarchs he replaced returned to power. The Spanish King wanted to reestablish the Spanish empire in Latin America, but it was too late. Spain had lost their colonies in America, and when they tried to restore their power, the United States interfered.

President of the United States James Monroe responded to the threat of European countries trying to assist Spain in regaining authority over Latin American colonies by sponsoring a document known as the Monroe Doctrine. President Monroe would create and enforce the Monroe Doctrine in 1822. The Monroe Doctrine stated that the United States would assist any country in the Western Hemisphere that was threatened by a European country. The Monroe Doctrine is still considered a major achievement of President Monroe.

Lesson 22 Review

Directions: For each question, present the answer in complete sentences with supporting information from the Lesson. Do not copy and paste from the Lessons or Internet resources, but answer in your own words to demonstrate understanding of the material.

1. Who led the revolution in Haiti? Conduct research and identify 5 facts about this person.

2. Name two men who gained independence for Latin America. Conduct research and identify 5 facts about each of these men. Be sure to cite resources.

3. Who led Mexico against their struggle against Spain? Conduct research and identify 5 facts about this person (or people). Be sure to provide resources.

4. Mexico lost half their territory to which country? Why did Mexico lose so much of their land?

5. Name the document that promised assistance from the United States to any country threatened by European nations. Who sponsored this document? Why was it important to the United States?

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