The group taught is comprised of employees who take their classes at lunchtime on their company’s site. Their profile is very diverse, as the group academically includes secondary, high school and university graduates, the latter further divided into a B. A. And a M. B. A. There are six Mexican adults ranging from their twenties to their forties. Their lower middle class social background, though, is quite uniform. Gender breakdown is half male and half female.
English levels range from Intermediate to Advanced. They all work for BIMBO, and most hold supervisory levels in purchasing, except for an executive in import/export. Interests vary from psychology to sports, action films, technology, fashion, romantic comedies, music, and travel. Their strengths and weaknesses in the basic skills are widespread and differ greatly: the majority has good reading skills, is able to communicate albeit grammar deficiencies, understand most of what I say, but is poor at writing.
Despite company promotion being contingent upon periodically-evaluated English proficiency, absenteeism and tardiness is frequent. LESSON PLAN DESCRIPTION Although my professional assignment is Conversation, the attached lesson plan See Appendix 1) addressed Process Description, which offered to help students develop narrating skills by thinking in terms of verb groups through process sequencing. My first step was a conversational warm-up with only two students. Seed what they understood by a process and, after eliciting a satisfactory answer, I narrated a life story. Students identified its structure and how a narrative can be a process. I continued with student lockstep vocal reading of the narrative handout (See Appendix 2). Then, I requested they identify the sequenced stages they found within that process, keeping them in line with he breakdown offered in the second handout (See Appendix 3). Another two students arrived ten and fifteen minutes late.
I explained the purpose of our lesson and allowed them to catch up by reading the story with which we were working. The process description itself was very clear to them and the timeline relationship between tense and time resulted simple towards this purpose. We reviewed the new vocabulary and applied it to different personalized scenarios. We proceeded to the writing exercise, which was my general objective, in addition to the lesson plan’s main aim. The students wrote their story based on heir business processes, hobbies and life experiences.
Each read their written production to their classmates, who discussed them, aided their correction, and provided feedback as groundwork. Results covered the full range: from excellent to deplorable. Although his classmates understood him, one my students could not express his ideas articulately, probably due to emotional stress resulting from the loss of his mother; another wrote something very short because he had to leave for a meeting; yet another did quite well and one did very well. I noted that their production scarcely utilized phrasal verbs.
This procedure allowed us to combine both contexts of language use evidenced in Cummins’ (1981) research on the relationship that exists between language proficiency and academic/cognitive development: “Many academic tasks such as reading or listening to a lecture, are regarded as ‘context reduced’, since the learner is forced to rely primarily on linguistic cues to meaning. “Social-international uses of language, such as face-to-face conversation, are regarded as ‘context-embedded,’ since they are supported by the situation and by paralinguistic cues and allow for negotiation and feedback. ” (Richards and Hurley, 1990: 144-5)
ACHIEVEMENT OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES Students successfully personalized the lesson, confirming that if students are involved in meaning-focused communicative tasks, then ‘language learning will take care of itself, and that plentiful exposure to language in use and plenty opportunities to use it are vitally important for a student’s development of knowledge and skill. ” (Harmer, 1998: 69) This teaching experience was a partial failure in regard to achievement of learning objectives. Timeline verbs within the process were easily understood, but I was unable to guide my students in the creation of narratives in terms of ERP groups.
I realized, too late, that phrasal verbs should have been revisited before the process description. On the other hand, this situation was offset by the achievement of my underlying objective, which was to motivate them to write. Based on an action research case presented by Althorn, Lined, Mason, Angel, and Reilly (2007) that concluded that student achievement and motivation can be improved through communicating learning objectives, I advised the students of this area of opportunity and its impact and relevance.
As follow-up, during the next classes I reinforced phrasal verbs and emphasized o my students the importance of awareness and self-improvement: “… It is very important to make a strong effort to inform students about the process of language acquisition, so they can continue to improve on their own. ” (Crashes, 2009: Introduction) DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TASKS AND ACTIVITIES wanted to do something different, so I chose the design of a lesson plan developed by Kenneth Barer. His contention was that it would . Alp students develop narrating skills by thinking in terms of verb ‘groups’ that belong together. ” (Bearer 2001) misunderstood the instructions of the original lesson plan, whereby the Vocabulary was the first handout and the Narrative was the second. As result, I did not implement the following steps: “ Provide the worksheet. Ask students to put the verbs in the order they think they will appear in the story, Ask students to put the verbs in the order they think they will appear in the story.
How could they change the story so the order followed their own choices? ” (Barer, 2011) Student unfamiliarity with grammar precluded success in that realm. Had I pre- tested my students in verbal phrases, could have avoided this obstacle. The “English Raven Guide for FEEL Young Learners” attests to the need for a general jesting system. It states that, ideally, such evaluations should be focused on individual learners to objectively assess that which students have learned in answer to the array of language learning tasks/activities executed in their classrooms.
This compensates for the reality that educators seldom have the time and/or resources to habitually design individual class/learner centered tests. Nevertheless, preventive measures can be taken, such as an introductory summary of the language within the lead-in. In reparation, further verb group reinforcement strengthened their language skills towards the achievement of the 50-minimum requirement at their compulsory periodic [email protected] evaluation.
CLASS ROOM MANAGEMENT Our classroom varies from session to session but in this instance it was a company meeting room with a round table and chairs. No whiteboard or window was available. Teacher and students all sat around the table during the class. Was reasonably successful with learners of different levels, abilities and ages, having provided personal feedback to each student with excellent rapport, met their emotional and welfare needs appropriately, and managed to distract them of their personal problems, all within a safe environment.
In “Classroom Management Strategies” at The Teacher’s Guide, Teresa Washings emphasizes the importance of room environment, supplies, general information on policies, procedures, and colleagues, seating, attendance lists, lesson plan, handouts, homework, grading, rewards and incentives, and daily routines, all factors that were taken into account for this class. TEACHER AND LEARNER LANGUAGE Teacher and learner language was comfortably informal in LA. Students’ body language reflected their understanding when my words shifted intermittently from complex to basic, in an effort to promote vocabulary improvement.
The interaction was IA brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. Earner-centered, although TTT was higher during my useless effort to convey the relationship between phrasal verbs and processes. LA brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. Earner-centered and teacher-centered LA discourse research in interactive exchanges in the SSL classroom concurs: “The analysis of interaction shows that learner-centered discourse provides opportunities for negotiation of form, content, and classroom rules of behavior, which creates an environment favorable to LA Learning. Anton, 1999) Reading or speaking mistakes were corrected through paperwork, word prompt, and reformulation, evidenced by “Error correction has little or no effect on subconscious acquisition, but is thought to be useful for conscious learning. ” (Crasher, 2009: 10) STEPS FOR LINGUISTIC AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT This task is yet another step towards my professional development through reflective practice, observation and analysis of my facilitators as well as my peers, assessment information to guide instruction, and related bibliography.
I’ve found that objectively viewing my class recordings, inviting feedback, ND reflecting upon the results, contributes to my self-monitoring. Towards our quest for excellence, Richards’ aha Language Teaching Matrix” provides a comprehensive checklist to guide us in evaluating and correcting our performance. It affords teachers “… A greater insight and an effective way of improving the management and understanding of [sic] their own teaching. ” (Richards, 2002: 131-2). Despite verb groups being beyond their grasp, students were enthusiastic and easily understood the verb timeline aim of the lesson.
I concluded that the former was due to their lack of phrasal-verb usage in building their narratives. I also realized that if I had broken down each activity of the lesson plan, I would have understood the procedure correctly. By the same token, recovery of the class was enabled by the planning stage of our multi-purpose lesson plan, where the choice of a ‘process description’ allowed the learners to apply their creative writing skills with the narrative, and practice their reading as well as their listening skills, notwithstanding their language skills.
Our follow-up lessons to correct the phrasal verb use deficiency promoted a higher use of this language in their daily conversations and in their writing. In avoidance of surprises in future language-based lessons, will ensure that my students are familiar with the subject matter by providing a short customized summary during the warm-up. Should it not suffice, I will be prepared to change the lesson plan in situ to extend on the topic.
Furthermore, I will continue to encourage self-improvement and use multiple-purpose strategies with contingency plans, together with personalized communication, as my basic teaching method. “l will also conclude that the best methods might also be the most pleasant, and that, strange as it seems, language acquisition occurs when language is used for hat it was designed for, communication. ” (Crashes, 2009: 1) Duke and Pearson (2002) advise teachers to grow by assuming “… All the responsibility for performing a task [taking students] to a situation in which [they] assume all of the responsibility. ” (Frey, 2011: 1).
This principle guides successful instruction despite grade level or content since it reflects what Good and Broody (2003) call “active teaching”: “Active teaching is the ability of an educator to present information to learners in ways that are effective and do not waste the students’ time. ” (Frey, 2011: 3) When students are before an educator who has mastered active teaching, they (Fisher & Frey, 2008) comprehend the point of the lesson, perceive the modeled skill or strategy, put it into practice under the supervision of the teacher, strengthen understanding with their peers, and practice independently. «The format can be easily captured in these memorable statements: I do it. (Modeling) We do it. (Guided Instruction) You do it together. (Collaborative Learning) You do it alone. (Independent Tasks) point. ” (Frey, 2011: 3) WORD COUNT: 1497 BIBLIOGRAPHY * Althorn, S. E. Et al. (2007). Learning Objectives: Posting & Communicating Daily Learning Objectives to Increase Student Achievement and Motivation. Education Resources Information Center. (on line) available from: http://www. Eric. De. Gob/Reallocation/search/detailing. JSP? _Neff=true& _ Search accessed on: 24 March 2011. Anton, M. (1999). The Discourse of a Learner-Centered Classroom: Coloratura Perspectives on Teacher-Learner Interaction in the Second-Language Classroom. Line) available from http://www. Eric. De Gob/Reallocation/search/residential _AU&Researcher_Searchable_0=mart+Anton&Reluctance’s _Facultative_0=”AntonMCtMartp;ERlCExReluctance’shSearchableeaccessed4 March 2011. * Beare,Bear2011). Vocabulary Lesson Plan. About. com GuCom. (on line) available from: http://esl. aSSLt.AboutodComcodduobstreperousness’srocess. htm acHTMLsed on: 20 March 2011. Classroom Management Strategies. The Teacher’s Guide. com. (Comline) available from http://www. theteaDistinguishedClComMClytemnestraacHTMLsed on: 24 March 2011. * Personal author, compiler, or editor name(s); click on any author to run a new search on that name. Frey, N. (2011) The Effective Teacher’s Guide: 50 Ways to Engage Students and Promote Interactive Learning. Second Edition. Guilford Publications. Pp. 3-Up Education Resources Information Center. (on line) available from http://www. eric. EricgoDeERGobeReallocationh/recordresidential sSPrchSearchablerd&pageSipassagesp;ERlCExReluctance’shSearchableSS+ROOM+MANAGEMENT&eric_dEricadiscountenancingp; ERIC amp; objectobjected10900019ba80435ae1sed on: 24 March 2011. * Guide to Listening Tests for Young Learners. English Raven Guide to Listening Tests for EFL YoFEEL Learners. (on line) available from: http://www. googleGoogle mComrlMixsURL& Asmp;ved=OCVedaFOccipitalrI=htURI/ _ ImAAAeIFntation_Guide. doc&eiDoc6LTbXii-FlexiblyrchoreographedFQjCNUSGSFAFQjCNFU7FN2K85cazkVlUmgOken67dZOAon: 24 March 2011. * Harmer, J. 1998). “The Practice of English Language Teaching. ” Fourth edition. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. P. 69. * Krashen, SCrashes982). “Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. ” First internet edition. Pergamon PBergamot. (on line) available from: http://wwu. sdkrawwwn.AstrakhanciComs_and_Practice /index. html accesHTMLon: 25 March 2011. * Richards, J. C. (1990). “The Language Teaching Matrix”. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 123-14Up * Teachers’ and Learners’ Language. (1997) International Language Centrre LaCentreLink. on line). Onailable Availablep://jobs. languageliLanguagesclOuriTOEFLcessed on: 20 March 2011. APPENDIX 1 – LESSON PLAN Name: Elizabeth De la Barrera BlBarreltBlazonch 29, 2011 | Class Schedule: Wednesday 13:00 to 15:00 hrs and Tuesday & Thursday 13:30 to 15:00 hrs I Observation Time: 13:30 to 14:20 hrs I Level: Intermediate; According to the Common European Framework Levels: Bl up to 3Bal to 400hs I Teshahsg Context and Class Profile: Private lessons to employees during lunchtime in a company meeting room with only a round table and chairs.
The group academically includes secondary, high school and niversity university, the latter further divided into a B. A. and a M. BAnd. There are six Mexican adults ranging from their twenties to their forties. Their lower middle class social background, though, is quite uniform. Gender breakdown is half males and half females. English levels range from Intermediate to Advanced.
Most hold supervisory levels in purchasing, except for an executive in import/ export. Interests also vary from psychology to sports, action films, technology, fashion, romantic comedies, music, and travel. Their strengths and weaknesses in the basic skills are widespread and differ greatly: the majority has good eading skieatingre able to communicate albeit grammar deficiencies, understand most of what I say, and are poor at writing.
I Type of Lesson: Language Lesson:— Function-based lesson: process sequencing Vocabulary-based lesson: improve vocabulary Grammar-based lesson: verbs and verb phrases identification- Skills Lesson: Reading skills: ComprehensComprehensions–m————-m——— Listening skills: Deductive listening— Speaking skills: Personalization— Writing skills: Writing a narrative I LANGUAGE PATTERN ANALYSIS: Pattern: Process Description Function- Past
Simple (affirmative form, regular and irregular Typical Model of the Pattern: From first meeting to marriage to settling down Typical Concept: Process Sequencing Function and Relationship Vocabulary; Reporting in the simple past tense I Problems: Lack of imagination to create processesCpronouncementsvey meaning: From first meeting to marriage to settling down (Intro/Development/ Conclusion)Checking of meaning: Review process sequencing: From A to B to C I Key Features of Grammar:Focus on verbs and verb phrasesA pphraseserb is a combination of a verb and a preposition, a verb and an adverb, or a verb with oth an advtooth and a preposition and may also combine with one or more nouns or pronouns. Direct report: Simple past tense-ed ending Der regular verbs. Irregular forms. Same form for all persons.
I Typical problems for Mexican Ss: develoAsnarrating skills through thinking in terms of verb ‘groups’ that go together I Key Features of Pronunciation/t/, /ld/ and /doldendings for regular verbs I Typical problems for Mexican Ss:lnabiliAs limitabilityguish between It/ and / d/ sounds. Difficulty in knowing when to use the /ld/ sound oldSituation for Pre/ Pra/Pro:DeParopment ofa relatioffhip I Models/ Cues: 1. First we hung out, hen we made out, and finally we set up house. 2. I bumped into you, we had coffee, and we became friends. 3. picked up Pickedllege application, I enrolled, and I dove into my chemistry major. 4. I set out to conquer the world, I travelled travelednd I woke up to the realization that my life was here. 5. The idea took off, it was implemented, and the resulting product was launched into the market.
I New/UnfamiIiarUnfamiliary: Introduction introduce catch someone’s attention hang out make small talk Getting to Know You bump into have some coffee trust someone with get someone’s number Going Out call up ake a dateakack someone up get to know someone I Getting Married fall in love propose set a datebuy andatablement ring be married by Starting a Family settle down become pregnant furnish the house make decisions together choose a name I I Pre-teacIing Plan: Possible review of phrasal verbs I Other Teaching Considerations: Substitute whiteboard use with handouts I Previous Knowledge: Students have recently seen varied vocabulary, reading of novels and conversation on different topics. I Main Aim of the Class: By the end of the lesson, students will have improved vocabulary through focus on verbs nd verb phNDses in order to enable them to describe a process which will enrich their speaking and writing skills.
I Activity: Ordering a process, reading comprehension, creation of student outline I Time: 5ff I Objeoffve: Help students develop narrating skills through thinking in terms of verb ‘groups’ that go together Procedure: * Tell students the story on the handout or any other before-during-after story. * Ask them to discover the phases of the story. * Once a structure for the story has been identified, ask students to work as a group in spotting verbs that match each phase of the process * Provide the worksheet (See Appendix 3). Ask students to place the verbs in the order they believe they will emerge in the story * Ask students to read the handout story (See Appendix 2) and contrast it with the order they chose. How can they modify the story so the order reflects their own choices? * Introduce the concept of processes to the students. What events in your life changed over time?