What is mean by Social Security in Employment can be defined in different ways. Social Security is not a new concept to the world t begins form the very early stage even not from the thought of human rights but started from Natural Rights. “The most perfect system of government is that which produces the greatest amount of happiness, the greatest amount of social security and greater amount of political stability”. -Simon Bolivar (1819) Social security in Employment is admire as a basic human right involves access to health care and income security, particularly in cases of old age, unemployment, sickness, invalidity, work injury, maternity or loss of a main income earner The structure of the Social Security maintained by respective states through Social Insurance Programs. Only 20 per cent of the world’s population has adequate social security coverage and more than half lack any coverage at all.
We can divide the social security schemes as contributory and non contributory schemes. Contributory schemes means the employee ( Beneficial Owner) Should contribute a monetary contribution to assure his future and sudden benefits. Non Contributory Benefits are relied on employer’s contribution for employees and largely depend on state’s contribution. The developed states forward this method and promote the Social Security schemes in Social Security mostly in ease of Unemployment benefits. Social Security Scheme Contributory Scheme Non-Contributory Scheme.
Regardless of where they live everybody needs a minimum level of social protection and income security, according to their society capacity and level of development. This will not happen automatically. Each country must develop through social dialogue a national social protection system that addresses the needs of all its people, Particularly those of women and of the excluded groups working in the informal economy. Although Sir Lankan has a reputation for providing its citizens with a higher level of social protection, mom gaps remain in this area.
The absence of an unemployment protection scheme and the large informal sector that is not covered by any form of social security scheme is a major concern. Given the trend of increased labor market mobility and flexibility within a globalizes economy, it has increasingly become necessary for countries to have adequate social protection mechanisms in place to ensure that such flexibility is balanced with adequate security. Among other things it includes unemployment and redundancy benefits, pension and provident fund schemes and measures to safeguard occupational health and safety. The ILL is concerned with decent work.
The goal is not just the creation of jobs, but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality. The quantity of employment cannot be divorced from its quality. All societies have a notion of decent work, but the quality of employment can mean many things. It could relate to different forms of work, and also to different conditions of work, as well as feelings of value and satisfaction. The need today is to devise social and economic system which ensures basic security and employment while remaining capable of adaptation to rapidly changing circumstances in a highly competitive global arrest.
All those who work have rights at work. The ILL Constitution calls for the improvement of the conditions of labor, whether organized or not, and wherever work might occur, whether in the formal or the informal economy, whether at home, in the community or in the voluntary sector. The primary goal of the ILL today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. This is the main purpose of the Organization today.
Decent work is the converging focus of all its four strategic objectives namely the rumination of rights at work, employment, social protection, and social dialogue. The ILL consistently maintained that economic and social development is two aspects of the same process which sustain and reinforce each other. The linkages are well illustrated by the four strategic objectives of the ILL. Principles and rights at work provide the ground rules and the framework for the development, employment and incomes are the way in which production and output are translated into effective demand and decent standards of living.
Social protection ensures human security and civic inclusion, and enables economic reform. Social illegal links production with distribution, and ensures equity and participation in the development process. Social protection systems transfer income to the sick and others who cannot earn their living. Labor and employment policies seek to increase the number of decent jobs. These two sets of policies should be complementary. A country that offers adequate social protection will be reducing open unemployment as well as easing necessary adjustment in the labor market.
A country that pursues a full employment policy will be reducing the demands on its system of social protection. But there can also be negative forms of feedback. As an example if labor market policies encourage early retirement or offer generous invalidity conditions, they will also increase dependency ratios and pension costs and may overstraining social protection budges. These and many other interconnections demand that labor market and social protection policies be considered together.
International Human Right Instruments on Social Security The right to social security is recognized as a human right. Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( JIHAD ) states that, Articles 22 “Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled o realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Article 23 “(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favorable remuneration insuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Article 25 “(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. In the Article 9 and 10 of International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (SERVICES) covers the right to social security. Article 9 of the SERVICES states that, aha States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance” The right to social security is also recognized in the Article 5 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women ( CEDAR ) ensure the right to social security for women in article 1 1 .
The Convention on the Rights of the Child ( CRY) enshrines the right of children to social security in article 26. ILL Conventions on Social Security Ratified by Sir Lankan Social Security protection was established as a basic human right in the Olio’s Declarations of Philadelphia Andean its Income Security Recommendation of 1944 No 67. There are eight Fundamental Conventions and Sir Lankan has ratified all of them. They cover subjects that are considered fundamental principles and sights at work. The eight Fundamental Conventions are: 1. CHIC 2.
CHIC – Forced Labor Convention, 1930 (No. 29) – Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948 (No. 87) 3. CHIC 4. Cool 5. CHIC 6. Chill – Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98) – Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100) – Abolition of Forced Labor Convention, 1957 (No. 105) – Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111) 7. CHIC years 8. CHIC – Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)Minimum age specified: 14 – Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182)