Essaies. The essay was a popular signifier of look for the early authors. Equally early as 1926 litterateur expressed the demand for literature that was native and national. Many essays foremost appeared as newspaper columns and subsequently they were published in anthologies. In 1921 Zoilo M. Galang published Life and Success. the first volume of essays in Ebglish. In that twelvemonth Zoilo M. Galang besides published anoher book of essays. Maestro of Destiny. Among the early essay authors might be mentioned F. M. Africa. Francisco Benitez. Jorge Bacobo. Amador Daguio. Leandro Fernandez. M. M. Kalaw. Pedro de la Llana. I. V. Mallari. Ignacio Manlapaz. Fernando Maramag. Camilo Osias. Claro M. Recto. Carlos P. Romulo. and Eulogioo B. Rodriguez. Short Stories. Virginia R. Moreno has described the literary old ages 1910 – 19o24 as “ … a period of novitiates with their experiences both infiction-making and the usage of the new linguistic communication. 1925 – 1931 was the periood of phenomenal growing among the practicians in the art. ” It is true that the early short narratives were the work of novitiates.
The narratives were frequently romantic and the escapades. thems. and secret plans were sometiomes imitated. There were troubles in grammar and at times at that place waws a inclination toward sentimentalism. But bit by bit. certain authors appeared who showed that the noviciate periods was stoping. Jorge Bacobo’s “Horrible Adventure” in the Philippine Revioew for May 1916. and Paz Marquez Benitez’s “The Siren of 34 Real” in the Philippine Review for July 1917 were praised by critics for their high literary quality. On september 20. 1925 The Philippines Herald published “Dead Stars” by Paz Marquez Benitez. This narrative was rapidly recognized as one of the best short narratives yet written by a Filipino.
In 19o25 Zoilo M. Galang published the first aggregation of short narratives in book signifier under the rubric Box of Ashes and Other Stories. Get downing with 19o26. Jose Garcia Villa encouraged authors with his annual choice of the best Filipino short narratives. In 1927 the first Anthology of Filipino short narratives was edited by Paz Marquez Benitez. It was entitled Filipino Love Stories. Oin that same twelvemonth. Jose Villa Panganiban published The Stealer of Hearts and Other Narratives. In 1928 the best short narratives were compiled by Jose Garcia Villa in Philippine Short Narratives: The Best 25 Narratives of 1928.
By 1930. original and important narratives were being written. “Zita. ” written by Arturo B. Rotor around 1930. has been called “…one of the finest love narratives in Filipino literature in English. ” Among the early short narrative authors were: Paz Marquez Benitez. Jorge Bacobo. Amador T. Daguio. Pilar Hidalgo Lim. Paz Latorena. Tarcila Malabanan Jose Villa Panganiban. Arturo B. Rotor. Loreto Paras Sulit. L. B. Uichangco and Jose Garcia Villa. Poems. The first known Filipino verse form in English is “Sursum Corda” by Justo Juliano. It appeared in the Philippines Free Press in 1907. This verse form. along with others of that period. has been criticized as being excessively unreal and overwritten in order to accomplish strength. The early verse form in book frequently borrowed images and similies from English or American poets. The first aggregation of verse forms in book signifier was Reminisces. by Lorenzo Paredes. in 1921. In 1922. Procopio Solidum publioshed Never Mind. a aggregation of Filipino poesy in English. Rodolfo Dato edited an anthology of Filipino verse forms in 1924 under the rubric Filipino Poetry. In 1926 he published his ain verse forms in Manila.
I. The Early Time period – 1900 to 1930
On August 13. 1898. the American forces occupied Manila. A few old ages subsequently. in April of 1900. President William McKinley directed the Philippines Commission to do English the official medium of direction for all public schools. The first instructors of English were members of the United States Army. In August of 1901 six hundred American instructors arrived on the conveyance Thomas. They replaced the soldiers as instructors. In that twelvemonth. 1901. the Philippines Normal School was founded. Its intent was to develop Filipino in the art of learning so that they could finally take charge of simple instruction. The pupils and the people in general learned English rapidly. Even in 1899 there were English newspapers such as The Courier. Insular Press. and Manila Freedom. In 1900 the Daily Bulletin was founded. while The Cablenews started in 1902. The Philippines Free Press began in 1905. edited by F. Theadore Rogers. At first it was a bilingual weekly in English and Spanish. In 1908 it published the first Filipino short narratives in English. In that same twelvemonth. 1908. the University of the Philippines was founded.
This school became the precursor in the usage of English for higher instruction. In October of 1910 the University of the Philippines ’ College Folio was published. This magazine printed the plants of the first promising authors in English. These early choices were largely ghost narratives or common people narratives explicating natural phenomena. Often the writers taught a moral message which was apparent even at a first reading. Among the celebrated early instructors of English might be mentioned professors Dean S. Fansier and his married woman Harrlott Ely Fansler. George Catholic Pope Shannon. Tom Inglis Moore. Harold p. Scott. and C. V. Wicker. In literature categories they taught the plants of Chaucer. Milton. Bonne. Shakespeare. Irving. Hawthorne. Emerson. Thoreau. Poe. Longfellow. Bryant. Harte. Holmes. Lowell. Shelley. Keats. Colerighe. Lamb. Joyce. Tennyson. Thackeray. Macaulay. and other celebrated authors. For composing subjects they encouraged the pupils to compose about common people narratives and their ain experiences. In one college category of 1913 the pupils were asked to compose addresss for these subjects: The Building of a modern Sanitary Market ; A Address at the First Banquet of the Philippine normal School ; An Entreaty to the moral Sense – Cockfighting ; Primary Education in the Philippines ; A Stump Speech before the People of a Certain Barrio ; and The unveiling of a Monument Dedicated to Apolinario Mabini. The pupil subjects were required to compose the corrected and when a grammatical error was made pupils were required to compose the corrected signifier five times. At the terminal of each subject the pupil wrote a statement of originality attesting that “ . . . this is my ain original work. ”
The accomplishment and dedication for the early instructors was to bring forth rich consequences in the old ages to come. At first Filipino authorship in English was rather formal and imitative. Influences from the Spanish linguistic communication could be seen in the usage of Spanish looks and in an flowery manner. Grammatical look was at times awkward and there was some trouble in the usage of prepositions and pronouns. But bit by bit the quality of composing improved. Between 1908 and 1914 some pupils at the University of the Philippines collected and retold. in English. old Filipino narratives. These Hagiographas were gathered by Dean S. Fansler and published in Filipino Popular Tales in 1921 the alumnuss of the Manila. High School published their English Hagiographas in The Coconut. The undermentioned twelvemonth 1913. the Philippine Normal School introduced its publication. The Torch. Aside from pupil publication. newspaper and magazines provided an early outle for authors. In 1920 the Philippines Herald began publication. It was founded by Manuel L. Quezon and its magazine subdivision was edited by Paz Marquez-Benitez. A distinguished author herself. she helped to do familiar the names of Paz Latorena. Loreto Paras. Jose Garcia Villa. Casiano T. Calalang. and others. In 1924 A. V. H. Hartendorp became the editor of the Philippine Education Magazine.
Some four old ages subsequently. he widened its content and renamed it the Philippine Magazine. The high quality of this magazine made it so popular that it became the most influential literary magazine in the state. It published some of the best Filipino composing in English. Filipino authors received farther encouragement in 1925. In that twelvemonth the Free Press began paying for original manuscripts and offered P1. 000 for the best narratives. The Manila Tribune was founded and. along with the Graphic. the Woman’s Outlook. the Woman’s Home Journal. and the Filipino Collegian. offered farther inducements to assuring authors. Besides in 1925 the Philippine Writers Association was organized with Rizal G. Adorable as president. Among the early members were: Paz Latorena. Loreto Paras. Jose Garcia Villa. Jose Panganiban. Remedios Mijares. Mercedes Grau. Celemencia Joven. Casiano Calalang. Jose Dayrit. Sol H. Gwekoh. Arturo B. Rotor. D. H. Soriano and Augusto C. Catanjal. Possibly an even more influential group was the Writer’s Club founded in1927 at the University of the Philippines. This group published Literary Apprentice which became the taking college literary publication in the state. The Writer’s Club stimulated and encouraged an artistic consciousness among the literary circles of the Philippines.
The first 30 old ages of Filipino Literature in English produced small in the Fieldss of play and he novel. Drama was barely written because common dramas and the zarzuela still dominated the phase. The first Filipino novel in English was A Child of Sorrow. written by Zoilo M. Galang in 1921. He subsequently wrote Visions of a Sower in 1924 and Nadia in 1929. Another novelist of this period was Ernest Lopez who published His Awakening in 1929. From 1900 to 1930 there was some important authorship of essays. short narratives and verse forms. In the undermentioned paragraphs the development of these signifiers will be treated in more inside informations. Essaies. The essays was a popular signifier of look for the early authors. Some essays were light or humourous. while others dealt with more serious topics such as instruction. history. political relations. and societal jobs. Equally early as 1926 litterateurs expressed the demand for a literature that was native and national.
Many essays foremost appeared as Galang published Life and Success. the first volume of essays in English. Another aggregation of Filipino essays appeared 1924. entitled Thinking for Ourselves. edited by Vicente M. Hilario and Eliseo Quirino. In that twelvemonth Zoilo M. Galang besides published another book of essays. Maestro of Destiny. Among the early essay authors might be mentioned F. M. Africa. Francisco Benitez. Jorge Bocobo. Amador Daguio. Leandro Fernandez. Zoilo M. Galang. Fernando Ma. Guerrero. M. M. Kalaw. Pedro de la Llama. I. V. Mallari. Ignacio Manlapaz. Fernando Maramag. Camilo Osias. Claro M. Recto. Carlos P. Romulo. and Eulogio B. Rodriguez. Short Stories. Virginia R. Moreno has described the literary old ages 1910-1924 as “…a period of novitiates with their experiences both in fiction-making and the usage of the new linguistic communication ; 1925 to 1931 was the period of phenomenal growing among the practicians in the art. It is true that the early short narratives were the plants of novitiates. The narratives were frequently romantic and the escapades. subjects. and secret plans were sometimes imitated.
There were troubles in grammar and times at that place was a inclination toward sentimentalism. But bit by bit. certain authors appeared who showed that the novitiate period was stoping. Jorge Bocobo’s “Horrible Adventure” in the Philippine Review for May 1916. and Paz Marquez Benitez’s “The Siren of 34 Real” in the Philippine Review for July. 1917 were praised by critics for their high literary quality. On September 20. 1925 The Philippines Herald Published “Dead Stars” by Paz Marquez Benitez. This narrative was rapidly recognized as one of the best short narratives yet written by a Filipino. In 1925 Zoilo M. Galang published the first aggregation of short narratives in book signifier under the rubric Box of Ashes and Other Stories. Get downing with 1926. Jorge Garcia Villa encouraged authors with his annual choice of the best Filipino short narratives. In 1927 the first anthology of Filipino short narratives was edited by Paz Marquez Benitez. It was entitled Filipino Love Stories. In that same twelvemonth. Jose Villa Panganiban published The Stealer of Hearts and Other Narratives. In 1928 the best short narratives were compiled by Jose Garcia Villa in Philippine Short Narratives: The Best 25 Narratives of 1928. By 1930 original and important narratives were being written. “ Zita. ” written by Arturo B. Rotor around 1930. has been called “…one of the finest love narratives in Filipino literature in English. ” Among the early short narrative authors were: Paz Marquez Benitez. Jorge Bocobo. Amador T. Daguio. Pilar Hidalgo Lim. Paz Latorena. Tarcila Malabanan. Jose Villa Panganiban. Arturo B. Rotor. Loreto Paras Sulit. L. B. Uichangco. and Jose Garcia Villa.
Poems The first known Filipino verse form in English is “Sursum Corda. ” by Justo Juliano. It appeared in the Philippines Free Press in 1907. This verse form. along with others of that period. has been criticized as being excessively unreal and overwritten in order to accomplish strength. The early verse form of 10 borrowed images and similes from English or American poets. The first aggregation of verse forms in book signifier was Reminiscences. by Lorenzo Paredes. in 1921. In 1922 Procopio Solidum published Never Mind. a aggregation of Filipino poesy in English. Rodolfo Dato edited an anthology of Filipino verse forms in 1924 under the rubric Filipino Poetry. In 1926 he published his ain verse forms in Manila. Most critics agree that Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion was a prima poet of the early period. His Azucena was published in New York in 1925. His poems reveal simple images with deep sensitiveness and original idea. Some poets who belonged to the early period of Filipino Literature were: Aurelio S. Alvero. Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion. Rafael Zulueta district attorney Costa. Luis Dato. Vicente L. del Fierro. Virgilio Floresca. Angela Manalang Gloria. Jose M. Hernandez. A. E. Litiatco. Fernando M. Maramag. Natividad Marquez. Conrado B. Rigor. Juan F. Salazar. Abelardo Subido. Trinidad Tarrosa Subido. Francisco G. Tonogbanua. L. B. Uichangco. and Jose Garcia Villa. Notes on The Apprenticeship Period ( 1910-1935 )
In 1900 English became the official medium of direction in Philippine schools. The first instructors were army work forces and their married womans. In 1901 the Philippine Normal School was founded to develop the Filipino instructors to take charge of simple instruction. In the same twelvemonth the ground forces conveyance. Thomas. bought 600 American instructors to the state to be incorporated into the educational system. These instructors introduced English and American literature to the Filipinos.
The period of 1910 to 1935 is by and large called the period of apprenticeship or imitation. Virginia R. Moreno. in her “A Critical Study of the Shorty Story in English Written by Filipinos. ” describes the old ages 1910-1925 “as a period of novitiates with their exercisings in fiction-making and the rise of the new linguistic communication. ” The Filipino authors imitated American and English authors. This fact is barely surprising since the early authors were. for the most portion. college pupils or immature alumnuss whose literary instruction had been mostly confined to American and English writers.
The University of the Philippines was founded in 1908. It became the centre of the literary attempt. In September 1910. the first issue of the UP Folio came off the imperativeness. This publication was recognized as incarnation of the early efforts of Filipinos at self-expression in English.
The UP Folio was replaced by the Philippine Collegian. Other publications which introduced Philippine literature in English to the populace were Philippine Review. Independent. Rising Philippines. and Citizens. In 1920 the Philippine Herald. the first Filipino daily in English. was founded. It paid for literary work it published and therefore gave a fiscal wages to authors in English. particularly in the short narrative.
The period of apprenticeship was inaugurated b two important events. In 925 A. V. H. Jartendorp became the editor-publisher of the Philippine Education Magazine. This shortly became the Philippine Magazine. the most influential literary magazine of its clip. The Manila Tribune was established in the same twelvemonth. It began printing a Sunday addendum having original short narratives and verse forms written in English. Other diaries followed and there was a market. although still really limited. for Filipino literary end product in English.
In 1927 the UP authors nine was founded and began printing the Literary Apprentice. which became the most esteemed college literary publication in the state. In the same twelvemonth. the Bureau of Education published Philippine Prose and Poetry. which was prescribed as a high school text edition. Furthermore. Jose Garcia Villa introduced Walt Whitman to the Philippines with the publication of his unconventional “Man Songs. ” This brought in a moving ridge of experimentation and rapid development.
The literary end product was farther stimulated by literary competitions. The first of these was that offered by the Philippine Free Press in the field of the short narrative. The short narrative became the favourite signifier among Filipino authors. In 1927 the Free Press published the first anthology of Philippine short narratives written in English. The short narratives during this period were either romantic narratives of the past with legendary figures or were imitations of secret plans and subjects from American and other foreign beginnings.
The most important short narrative produced during this period was “Dead Stars” by Paz Marquez-Benitez. It was published in the Philippines Herald on September 20. 1925. Her fellow authors instantly recognized the narrative as uncomparably superior to all other Filipino short narratives published up to so.
The poesy of the apprenticeship period was dominated by sentimental love wordss. Verbal exuberance made the verse forms unreal and insincere. “Sursum Surda is the first known Philippine verse form in English ; it appeared in the Philippine Free Press in 1907. The first noteworthy aggregation of Philippine essays in English. “Thinking of Ourselves. ” compiled and edited by Vicente M. Hilario and Eliseo M. Quirino. appeared in 1924. The essays dealt with Philippine traditions and history. faith. doctrine. moralss. literature and the humanistic disciplines. political relations and authorities. and other important affairs bearing on Filipino civilization.
The drama produced during this period was largely extremely emotional instead than emotional experiences. Some were contrived melodramas or wide comedies. American influence on the Filipino play was less discernible. but contact with American dramas was extended and foreign dramas were frequently staged in Manila. However drama suffered from public apathy. It could non vie with the zarzuela. which was so at the tallness of its popularity.
The early novels in English were sentimental. The fact is that the cultural footing of literature was excessively thin to back up a sustained. complex tradition necessary for a novel. Zolio M. Galang’s “Child of Sorrow. ” the first Filipino novel in English. was published in 1924. otes on The Emergent Period ( 1935-1945 )
The old ages 1935 to 1945 saw the outgrowth of a important tendency in Philippine literature in English. Jose M. Hernandez describes this period as a clip of self-discovery and of rapid growing. Hernandez returns by the reciting the qualities of the period:
1. The authors consciously and purposefully to make a national literature. 2. The authors had gained full control of the English linguistic communication and could successfully pull strings it as a literary medium. 3. Experiment with different literary signifiers and techniques and tempers was the manner. 4. Three groups of authors emerged:
* Those who were concerned with societal consciousness* Those whose chief concern was workmanship* Those who were determined to research local colour. Some of the authors of this group formed the Veronicans.
There were many factors which lead to the blossoming of originative energy in Filipino composing. Nevertheless. Herbert Schneider. S. J. points to the followers:
1. In 1937 the Philippine Book Guild was founded. Its intent was to bring forth literature and make a reading populace. 2. In 1939 the Philippine Writer’s Guild was established. The credo of members was to develop a common cultural consciousness among Filipinos. 3. The Free Press. The Graphic. and the Philippine Magazine followed a policy of supplying ample infinite for literary work in English. 4. The Commonwealth Literary Awards. established in 1940. gave the first significant monetary values to meritable authors. 5. The policy adopted by newspapers to publish hebdomadal addendums when literary plants were published. The Nipponese business of 1941-1945 brought this blossoming of Philippine literature in English to an disconnected stopping point. The literary plants that were produced were published abroad. Although the Nipponese business old ages produced small literary work of significance. the period was to go a rich beginning of capable affair in the succeeding period.
The period of outgrowth saw a displacement from romantic idealism to romantic pragmatism. This pragmatism reached a flood tide in the narratives of Manuel E. Arguilla. N. V. M. Gonzalez. and Nick Joaquin who wrote effectual portraitures of Filipino life evocative of countrified scenes. lifting artistic value and significance. In poesy. the literary end product was instead meagre although at that place seemed to be echt desire to make new poetic manners of look. The “schoolroom poets” still provided inspiration. and the Romanticists and Victorians offered forms that Filipino poets followed. The sonnet enabled them to make love wordss which captured niceties and tempers through a more skilled use of linguistic communication and imagination.
The rebellion against traditional values and mores was first felt in poesy. Jose Garcia Villa was charged with indecency when he published “Man Songs. ” He was expelled from the University of the Philippines but succeeded in rousing the Filipino poets to their inhibitive worlds. Jose Garcia Villa’s influence on Philippine poesy has been profoundly felt. His first book of verse form was published in 1933. His 2nd aggregation of verse forms. entitled “Poems by Doveglion. ” won the Commonwealth Literary Award for 1941.
The startup of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935 gave the Filipinos partial self-rule preparatory to independence in 1946. This brought renewed political agitation into Filipino literature. A group of litterateur banded together to organize the Philippine Writer’s League. They were animated by the belief that “literature conditioned society. ” One of the most articulate of this group was Salvador P. Lopez. In his first books of essays. “Literature and Society. ” he insisted that the author should hold a direct duty to society.
In the play. the Western influence continued its house clasp on Filipino dramatists. Although the West has already rebelled against photographic representations of life. the Filipino dramatists in English were non yet at place with representational pragmatism. The Filipino play in English lagged behind in development compared to other literary signifiers. There are several grounds for this. One ground is that chauvinistic subjects and radical topics were popular among the general populace. Dramatists who adopted English as their vehicle of artistic look felt neither rebellious nor incendiary.
Another ground may hold been that films took over the zarzuela despite the great competition put up by the latter. Dramatic pragmatism could non absorb unrealistic duologue and state of affairss ensuing from the usage of English. Prominent among the dramatists of this period were Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero and Severino Montano. Guerrero succeeded in set uping a play tradition in the University of the Philippines and had put up the UP Mobile Theater.
In the field of the novel. Juan C. Laya’s “His Native Souls” won the first Commonwealth Literary Award in 1940. This fresh Tells of a Filipino repatriate who. holding been educated abroad. finds himself a alien in his hometown. N. V. M. Gonzalez is fecund author. He wrote “The Winds of April. ” He is a regional-realist and gives a earthy portraiture of the husbandmans and fisherfolk.
III. The American Colonial Period
Despite the menace of censoring by the new colonisers. more authors turned up “seditious works” and popular authorship in the native linguistic communications bloomed through the hebdomadal mercantile establishments like Liwayway and Bisaya. The poet Alejandro G. Abadilla promoted modernism in poesy. Abadilla subsequently influenced immature poets who wrote modern poetries in the sixtiess such as Virgilio S. Almario. Pedro I. Ricarte and Rolando S. Tinio.
Filipinos seemed to hold taken easy to the modern short narrative as published in the Philippines Free Press. the College Folio and Philippines Herald. Paz Marquez Benitez’s “Dead Stars” published in 1925 was the first successful short narrative in English written by a Filipino. Later on. Arturo B. Rotor and Manuel E. Arguilla showed exceeding accomplishments with the short narrative. Alongside this development. authors in the slangs continued to compose in the states. Others like Lope K. Santos. Valeriano Hernandez Pena and Patricio Mariano were composing minimum narrations similar to the early Tagalog short fiction called Dali or pasingaw ( study ) .
The Summary of the “DEAD STARS”
Dead Star is a love narrative about a adult male named Alfredo Salazar. who has his groom-to-be in the individual of Esperanza and they have been engaged for rather some clip. Society views them as an ideal twosome. Their nuptials is about to take topographic point in the close hereafter. Prior to the nuptials nevertheless. he sees another miss. when he goes with his male parent to a judge’s house. He tries to seek love in her. but she kinda diminutions. in that manner. Alfredo became a small spot confused in his upcoming nuptials where he is about to take between two options ; to make what he should make by get marrieding Esperanza as prescribed by his parents or to make what he wants to make by holding Julia Salas. his dream – the dead star in his life. In the narrative. dead stars symbolize a dream for something that is nonexistent. The cat loved the miss. She was his dream. his star. He thought there was love at that place. But like a dead star which is so far off. and whose radiance could really be the left over going visible radiation from it. he was a long manner from acquiring the miss. and the love he thought was possible. ne’er was.
versions of Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Tarzan by F. P. Boquecosa who besides penned Ang Palad ni Pepe after Charles Dicken’s David Copperfield
the realist tradition was kept alive in the novels by Lope K. Santos and Faustino Aguilar. among others.
The novel in the slangs continued to be written and serialized in hebdomadal magazines like Liwayway. Bisaya. Hiligaynon and Bannawag.
The essay in English became a powerful medium from the 1920’s to the present. Some prima litterateurs were journalists like Carlos P. Romulo. Jorge Bocobo. Pura Santillan Castrence
Among those who wrote unfavorable judgment were Ignacio Manlapaz. Leopoldo Yabes and I. V. Mallari. But it was Salvador P. Lopez’s unfavorable judgment that grabbed attending when he won the Commonwealth Literary Award for the essay in 1940 with his “Literature and Society. ”
IV. The Contemporary Time period
The blossoming of Philippine literature in the assorted linguistic communications continue particularly with the visual aspect of new publications after the Martial Law old ages and the revival of committed literature in the sixtiess and the 1970s.
With the demand by the Commission on Higher Education to learn Filipino Literature in all third schools in the state. the instruction of the common literature or literatures of the parts was emphasized. The Difference Between the Myth and the Legend
Myths – Mythology. organic structure of myths of a peculiar civilization. and besides the survey and reading of myth. Myth is a complex cultural phenomenon that can be approached from a figure of point of views. In general. myth is a narrative that describes and portrays in symbolic linguistic communication the beginning of the basic elements and premises of a civilization. Mythic narrative relates. for illustration. how the universe began. how worlds and animate beings were created. and how certain imposts. gestures. or signifiers of human activities originated. Almost all civilizations possess or at one clip possessed and lived in footings of myths. Myths are traditional narratives happening in a timeless yesteryear. They involve supernatural elements and are beyond the frontiers of logic. Long ago. when our ascendants heard the sound of boom and saw lightning. they were frightened because they could non understand why these things happened. In order to understand these and other natural events. they created narratives. The narratives were handed down from coevals to coevals all over the state. Although myths are non based on nonsubjective truth. they reflect both cosmopolitan concerns and the concerns of specific civilizations.