Postmodernism Essay, Research Paper
In recent old ages, multiculturalism, tolerance and political rightness have been integrated into how American society thinks. America seems to be seeking to larn more about the ingredients of her thaw pot. These attempts can be best understood by analyzing post-modernism. Post-modernism is particularly of import to interrupting down stereotypes such as those that exist environing the black household.
To understand post-modernism we must foremost understand modernism. Modernism is the doctrine that began with the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment was an epoch when scientific discipline and art flourished. European society used the Enlightenment to object to the subjugation of the church. This epoch emphasized merely those things that are discernible or mensurable ( Smith, 1995 ) . The scientific method developed at this clip became the criterion to which everything is measured. Modernism, although traveling off from the parturiencies of faith, was restricting in its ain manner.
Post-modernism can be viewed as an enlargement of modernism. It does non restrict the thought of truth to merely that which can be observed. Post-modernism is all embracing. Post-modernism does non let for merely one definition for anything. There are several accounts for phenomena. Where modernism emphasizes racial categorizations, post-modernism emphasizes cultural and cultural categorizations. Post-modernism countenances differences from household to household and individual to individual within the parametric quantities of one civilization.
This multiculturalism is being used to educate from primary instruction through higher instruction. In Percival and Black? s survey with sixth-graders and multiculturalism, they realized that, although they were analyzing a specific Native American folk, stereotypes of that folk or people can develop ( 2000 ) . For illustration, all African Americans from the South eat collard leafy vegetables and maize staff of life. So, educating oneself about other civilizations can non be used to generalise to the full group. Post-modernism is, therefore, really of import to understanding the construct of a black household.
Post-modernism reveals that fortunes can non be explained in one manner. Modernism has clear processs and standards for specifying phenomena. The inquiry of truth is determined by scientific discipline. Scientists control the worldview or meta-narrative of the dominant group ( Western society ) . Much of the manner current societies view the universe is dominated by Western civilization. The meta-narrative for the black household is defined by the Western criterions: income and instruction and any other quantifiable unit.
The history of the black household is hard to research harmonizing to Barnetta McGhee White because there are few written paperss to confirm the unwritten history ( Staples, 1991 p.50 ) . In footings of the predominating meta-narrative, familial ties must be documented by household trees. Black households, due to the dislocation of the household through the slave trade, rely on unwritten history to state the narrative of their line of descent ( Staples, 1991, p 51 ) . The family tree of writer Barnetta McGhee White helps exemplify certain points. The first is that since a bulk of the research into family tree is dependent on written paperss dating into the founding old ages of this state, these paperss are merely stating what the author wants the reader to cognize. The history of black households is told through the narrative of the slave owner and, therefore, gives information relevant to the concern of bondage? everything that mensurable. Another point is that those in power in the past control the hereafter. If current society is viewed in chronicled footings, there is small control inkinesss can hold over the history of their household history because it will ever be in footings of the dominant meta-narrative based on modernness. The decision to be made by the former points is that modern idea is to fault for stereotypes against inkinesss. Post-modern idea allows for the black household to be viewed by standards other than income and instruction.
Post-modern idea must be applied in discussi
ng the black household in order to organize a complete sentiment or analysis for battling the jobs of the black household. Senator Daniel Monyihan posited that the jobs black society faced are a consequence of a dislocation in the black household ( Staples, 1991, p250 ) . A factor that may non hold been considered in the 1965 thesis was the fact that there was a countrywide impairment of the household due to societal factors, such as the Vietnam War. From 1960 to 1970, the per centum of married twosome households? defined by the Census? Current Population Survey as? ? two people or more ( one of whom is the homeowner ) related by birth, matrimony, or acceptance and shacking together. ? ( 1980 ) ? dropped four per centum, and it dropped even further from 1970 to 1980 by 10 per centum ( 1999 ) .
Postmodern theory besides helps us to understand while harmonizing to the Census? definition of household inkinesss have a higher per centum of households of four or more people with female homeowners, the premise that that black female parents are entirely taking attention of big households is false. The ground for the five per centum difference between black and white households headed by females can non be taken at face value ( Census 2000 ) . The female may populate with other grownups who contribute resources to the household. Furthermore, the homeowner may be supplying in contract merely ; she signed the rental, title or mortgage but does non populate at that place and supply the mundane ( other that monetary ) support.
Other factors weigh to a great extent in understanding the predicament of inkinesss. Two correlative elements, which affect inkinesss, are income and instruction. The per centum of black households in poorness in 1990 was eleven per centum higher than that of white households, which was eight per centum ( Census Statistical Brief, 1993 ) . It is non surprising that 13 per centum more Whites were college alumnuss that same twelvemonth ( ibid ) . The difference dropped to twelve per centum for the twelvemonth 2000? 28 per centum of Whites were college alumnuss and 16 per centum of inkinesss were college alumnuss ( Census 2000 ) .
These two factors are of import because one of the meta-narratives in America stresses doing every bit much money as possible. In order to do money, you must hold an instruction. In order to have the higher instruction needed for better employment, you need money. The thought of this rhythm does non allow inkinesss to win harmonizing to the criterions of this peculiar meta-narrative. However, there are black households who win by these criterions through assorted agencies such as community aid, fiscal assistance and their ain will. Some households would non rate success harmonizing to income or instruction. Post-modernism allows different grounds and thoughts to find the truth. Therefore, in a postmodern universe, truth is an sentiment that is flexible to change.ReferencesStaples, R. ( Ed ) . ( 1991 ) . The black household: essays and surveies. California: Wadsworth Printing Company.
Percival, J. and Black, D. ( 2000 ) . A true and go oning narrative: Developing a culturally sensitive, incorporate course of study in college and simple schoolrooms. The Social Studies, 91 no.4 151-8.
Smith, R. ( 1995 ) . The inquiry of modernism and postmodernism. Humanistic disciplines Education Policy Review, 96 2-12.
United States. Census Bureau ( 2000 ) Current Population Survey, Racial Statistics Branch, Population. Retrieved February 24, 2001 from the World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.census.gov/population/socdemo/race/black.ppl-142.tab06.txt
United States. Census Bureau ( 2000 ) Current Population Survey, Racial Statistics Branch, Population. Retrieved February 24, 2001 from the World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.census.gov/population/socdemo/race/black.ppl-142.tab07.txt
United States. Census Bureau ( 1999 ) Statistical Abstract of the United States. Retrieved February 8, 2001 from the World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.census.gov/prod/99pub/99statab/sec31.pdf
United States. Census Bureau ( 1993 ) Black Americans: A profile. Retrieved February 15, 2001 from the World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.census.gov/apsd/www/statbrief/sb93_2.pdf
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