research tools for data collection

Research Tools for Data Collection

1. Validity describes the degree to which a tool measures the attribute it is designed to measure. Describe two ways in which you could evaluate the validity of a research tool.

a. Content Validity is validity evidence that examines the items in the test; whether these items measure what it is supposed to measure. The process usually involves competent experts in the field and they meticulously review the items and the related references. These competent experts determine the basis for the respondents to make their judgment on the test items. Experts may also hold interviews and other methods to observe and evaluate the responses. In academic tests, for example in science aptitude tests, the test items are also referred to the textbooks, curricula, manuals and standards (Measurement Concept and Test Interpretation, n.d., p. 34).

b. Consequential Validity is new validity evidence and it evaluates the consequences or results of the tests, whether they are expected or not.  Consequential validity may determine the effectiveness, the costs and benefits its intended beneficiaries. It may compare the risks taken by the respondents in making their decisions either way. Another way to find the degree of the evidence of validity is to evaluate efficiency of the implementation. These are the deviations to the intended or prescribed process of the assessment tools (Measurement Concept and Test Interpretation, n.d., p. 37).

2. Reliability refers to the degree of consistency with which to measure. Describe one statistics that is commonly utilized to represent the reliability of a research tool.

Split-Half reliability methodology is a measure of internal consistency that is used to determine the consistency of responses to test materials. This methodology is ideal in standardizing tests to determine whether the test items are consistent based on various factors. The test material is split into two parts using random sampling or the odd-even selection. Unlike other reliability tools, the split-half reduces the effects of time fluctuations because the tests are administered to the same individual at one time. There may also be effects on familiarity and fatigue. The respondent may feel more familiar with the test because of the practice in the first half and this may have influence on the results. He or she may also experience fatigue, giving more energy in the first half than in the second half. Another significant consideration is the effect of reducing the number of test items, which may also affect the reliability of the test material. Because the test is made shorter, the over-all result of reliability is affected. The longer the test, the more consistent it becomes. There are tools that may be used to support the split half method to determine the reliability of the test in its entirety if it were given as a whole (Measurement Concept and Test Interpretation, n.d., p. 33). Examples of these are the “Spearman Brown Prophecy Formula” and the “Cronbach’s Alpha” (Types of Reliability, 2006, p. 1).

3. Assessment tools. Identify five tools commonly used in Chronic Depression in adults.

Some assessment tools recommended for older patients with Chronic Depression:

a.       Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A nine-item questionnaire based on DSM IV used to diagnose and evaluate the level of depression. It categorizes the levels as minimal, mild, moderate, moderately severe and severe depression.

b.      Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Five-minute duration test to assess anxiety and depression. Scales are classified as normal, mild, moderate and severe.

c.       Beck Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-II). Using DSM IV criteria, also a five-minute test assessing the how severe the level of depression and can be used both normal and clinical patients. It is graded minimal, mild, moderate and severe.

d.      Geriatric Depression Scale. This tool is very suitable for older patients.

e.       Cornell Scale for Depression. Suitable for patients with Dementia. (Laurence, 2008).

4. Describe three disadvantages associated with the use of assessment tools for gathering information on the client.

In the development, implementation and interpretation of psychological tests, it is understood that: a. Assessment tools are not perfect. Because of the innate qualities of humans, tests cannot provide exact results but will have to rely on closest, most reliable interpretations. b.

testing for validation and reliability of tests is a continuous process. The test will have to be revalidated to match its effectiveness based on many factors.  c. because the processes are long and tedious, to be used for specific and limited coverage may turn out to be too expensive for implementation (Measurement Concept and Test Interpretation, n.d.).

References

Knott, Laurence. (2008). “Recognising and Screening for Depression in Primary Care”. Patient UK. Retrieved 10 January 2008 from http://www.patient.co.uk/showdoc/40024566/

“Measurement Concept and Test Interpretation” (n.d.). Basic Concepts of Psychological Assessment. Chapter 3. pp. 23-38.

“Types of Reliability” (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved 10 January 2009 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/reltypes.php

 

"Looking for a Similar Assignment? Order now and Get a Discount!

Take My Online Class For Me | Full Course Services
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

Hey, wait!You Don't want to miss this offer!

Before you go, let us offer you a 20% discount coupon for your next purchase.