stress and job performance essay research paper

Stress and Stress Management

Who of you worrying can add a individual hr to his life? Since you can non make this really small thing, why do you worry about the remainder?

Whether you are speaking to a college professor, a atomic physicist, a physician or the 15 year-old flipping Burgers at your vicinity McDonald’s, a common factor that ties all of their really different occupations together is job-related emphasis. Stress comes in many signifiers and it affects people in many ways. Some people have mastered the art of aiming and cut downing it at its root, and at the other extreme, some may decease as a consequence of it. Whatever the instance, emphasis is a force to be reckoned with both at work and elsewhere.

Stress is non a new issue, nor is it ever a bad 1. As a affair of fact, we need it for endurance. Harmonizing to Richard Stein, writer of Personal Strategies for Populating With Stress, “In the operation of our biological systems, normal emphasis is necessary and critical: Through fluctuations on the subjects of battle or flight, emphasis reactions mobilize us to accommodate to altering stimulations. ( 1983, p. 1 )” This type of emphasis is referred to as “eustress” ( Stress Management: Ten Self-Care Techniques 1986 ) . In other words, to be able to accommodate and respond to alter, emphasis is a critical factor. Another illustration of the healthy side of emphasis would be what Stein calls a “controlled exposure to stress.” An illustration of that would be watching a horror film. The emphasis that we experience from that is non merely “controlled” as Stein would name it, but besides a spot enjoyable.

More evidently, emphasis can be rather harmful. Stress occurs when the force per unit areas upon us exceed our resources to get by with the force per unit areas ( Stein, 1983, p. 3 ) . This type of emphasis is called “hurt” ( Stress Management: Ten Self-Care Techniques 1986 ) . Too much of it can really be lifelessly. One of the chief grounds that emphasis can be labeled as a slayer is that its effects can be delayed and it can accrue. More or less, emphasis is a clip bomb. Stein states that:

It is now known that the most malign effects of emphasis can be deferred and can roll up until inordinate degrees are reached. Compounded emphasis can lend to sudden decease – as it does each twelvemonth for 1000s of victims of bosom onslaught and shot; or it can lend easy and perniciously – as it does for 1000000s – to a huge mixture of other every bit lay waste toing physical and mental upsets. ( 1983, p. 2 )

This is non to advert that emphasis is non inexpensive for anyone by any agencies. Harmonizing to one survey, emphasis costs US industry $ 19.4 billion dollars every twelvemonth because of premature employee decease due to emphasize. Another $ 150 million per twelvemonth is lost in the US entirely because of stress-related absenteeism. Annually, $ 700 million dollars is being spent to enroll replacings for executives with bosom disease, chronic hurting, high blood pressure and concerns, three emphasis related upsets, that make up 54 per centum of occupation absenteeism. Not to advert that workers’compensation awards for occupation emphasis are normally four times the sum of awards for regular claims ( Stress Management 2000: High Cost of Stress 2000 ) .

John McEwan, emphasis, heartache and injury adviser, says that larning how to pull off emphasis is the key to a healthy and more fulfilling life. “Think of surfing a immense powerful moving ridge,” explains McEwan. “Stress used right will enable you to travel with the flow, siting the right side of the moving ridge. If you fight against emphasis, combating moving ridge after moving ridge, so it’s merely a affair of clip before you will be sucked under.” ( Seligman, 2000, p. 38 )

McEwan’s point is really valid. Stress has a major impact on day-to-day life whether people are distressingly cognizant of it or it is an underlying job they have yet to face. Due to the overpowering figure of people who are afflicted with emphasis related unwellnesss and injury, particularly related to the workplace, there have been infinite books and publications published on ways to cut down and get by with emphasis.

Harmonizing to Melanie Seligman, writer of “Stress Success” one of the most effectual ways to assist yourself get by with pressured occupation and household committednesss is to hike your immune system. She explains that repeating colds or grippe, allergic reactions and feeling tired after a long dark’s remainder are marks that your immune system is non runing decently. Seligman describes the immune system as a individual’s “interface with the environment.” “Your immune system is the first line of defence when infection strikes the organic structure. Like the nervous system, the immune system is capable of larning” ( Seligman, 2000, p. 38 ) . Basically, Seligman is bespeaking that emotional provinces like depression and heartache can weaken unsusceptibility, whereas loving can heighten it and do it stronger. She besides suggests that peole should avoid the enticement to utilize antibiotics excessively frequently as that will harm white blood cells and in the terminal weaken the immune system ( Seligman, 2000, p. 38 ) .

Along the same vena of thought is another survey which shows that along with a healthy diet and a strong immune system, you should non pretermit the power of exercising. Over 1000 surveies have indicated that exercising has been shown to cut down emphasis. For the optimum consequence, the consequences show that you should seek aerophilic exercising that increases your bosom rate for 20 proceedingss or more. One of the grounds that exercise helps cut down emphasis is because it distracts you from whatever it is that is doing emphasis. It besides helps extinguish extra energy, which can stem from and lend to emphasize ( Sress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) .

Exercise has a calming consequence and can take to reduced emotional hurt and better concentration. And it makes you experience more capable of managing chanllenges, such as undertaking the cause of your emphasis. Exercise besides helps counter possible diseases that are exacerbated by chronic emphasis, such as coronary arteria disease ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) .

In add-on, you should go what Linda Cruse calls an “office jock” ( Cruse, 1999, p. 65 ) This entails supervising your emphasis degree when it starts to bring forth physical symptoms. She suggests that you should travel and stretch as much and every bit frequently as you can during the class of the twenty-four hours. This monitoring should be for two peculiar topographic points: your shoulders and your jaw. “They are frequently depositories of emphasis and can take to adenoidal nervousnesss and TMJ, a enfeebling upset that causes hurting and loss of mobility in the jaw,” Cruse provinces ( 1999, p. 65 ) .

Besides, the sheer power of yoga and speculation has been a immense hit in recent old ages. Research has demonstrated consistent, powerful consequences utilizing these techniques. Stress research worker, Hans Selye, writes, “These patterns should non be underestimated simply because scientific discipline can non explicate them; they have worked for so long and in so many signifiers that we must esteem them” ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) .

Peoples that have mastered speculation are capable of cut downing blood force per unit area, O ingestion and even cut down their bosom rate whenever they want ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) . Over clip, about anyone can accomplish these desireable consequences. Harmonizing to Herbert Benson, a Harvard University doctor, mundane you should be after to pass some clip at remainder ( non asleep ) . Breathing should be your chief focal point at this point and it should happen in the diaphram, the musculus between your venters and your thorax ( Stress Tips & A; Strategies 1999 ) . He states that you should do it regular and continuously reiterate one word. The word itself should be simple or it could even be a word that does non do you believe, like the of all time popular “om.” He goes on to stress that this signifier of relaxation “is a accomplishment that requires regular pattern. It is non helpful to seek it for the first clip when under tremendous emphasis” ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) .

Making visual images is another tactic used with both mediation and yoga. Imagining a pleasant topographic point is a good manner to mentally take yourself from a nerve-racking state of affairs. In making this you must let any ideas you have to go through through your head without really “believing” about them. In making all of this, your take a breathing form should be slow and deliberate until you feel wholly at easiness. It is a good thought to conceive of a topographic point that makes you experience good and relaxed. Most frequently, this is a topographic point in nature or a specific topographic point where you may hold spent reposeful holidaies. You should be concentrating on all of your senses in order to acquire the full consequence. The visual image should last from five to ten proceedingss and the return to world should be slow and progressive ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) .

Another writer, on the other manus, suggests that you should “giggle while you work.” “Fun and wit aid persons through crisis and alteration,” ( 2000, p. 214 ) writes Dave Hemsath and Leslie Yerkes, co-authors of 301 Wayss to Have Fun at Work. “Because they facilitate the release of tenseness, merriment and wit addition employees’ability to get by with emphasis on the occupation and to stay flexible, originative and advanced under force per unit area – cardinal characteristics of a strong, resilient corporate civilization,” state the writers ( 2000, p. 214 ) . In other words, although it may hold one time been seen as large faux pas to jest around at the office, today it is of enormous value to allow your guard down, if merely for the interest of your saneness and wellness, and state a few gags.

It seems as though this is a really popular contention. Many writers seem to portion Clarke’s positions on laughter and merriment in the workplace. One such writer, John Weinstein, suggests that there are many ways to utilize “wit to get by” ( 2000, p. 5 ) . One manner is fundamentally to pass more clip with your funniest friends and co-workers. By making this you are environing yourself with wit and you are finding the nature of your sense of wit. Make clip for pleasance. Schedule merriment day of the months and activities in progress. Give yourself permission to drop the ball off and loosen up. Find wit in mundane life. You have to larn to express joy at your ain errors and happen wit in the thick of emphasis ( Weinstein, 2000, p. 5 ) .

Weinstein goes on to add that “to successfully integrate wit into the workplace, directors must give employees permission to hold merriment” ( 2000, p. 5 ) . He says that directors have to allow them cognize that laughter in the workplace can be highly good in hiking morale and productiveness for everyone in the organisation ( 2000, p. 5 ) .

One such company is Southwest Airlines. This is a company with a carefree Chief executive officer that has placed the company in the media on more than one juncture for his shannanigans. This is the compnay that merely “refuses to take itself seriously” ( Armstrong, 2000, p. 401 ) . Southwest has repeatedly won legion awards such as the Triple Crown Award for best on-time service, best luggage handling and best client service. It boasts a figure one evaluation amoung the states nine major air hoses. Customers have returned all of the love by doing this low-priced air hose the most profitable in the concern. All this is from an air hose that is merely a one-fourth of the size of the industry leader, American Airlines ( Armstrong, 2000, p. 401 ) .

Another survey claims that the figure one cause of emphasis at the workplace is a bad foreman. The article besides offers a figure of ways in which a foreman can assist relieve their employees’emphasis. The chief 1 is to be sensible in your expections. This means to watch the figure of excess responsibilities you give your employees to transport. Loading them up with excessively much beyond their given assignments will take quality off from all of their work while still doing their deadlines more hard to accomplish ( How To Help Reduce Stress in Your Employees 2000 ) .

A more obvious solution is to show your feelings. We all know that by showing feelings, we are let go ofing pent up emotional tenseness that is non making anyone any good by remaining indoors. “There is grounds that resiliency to emphasize, including disease-related hurt, is associated with how people handle their emotions,” ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) harmonizing to David Spiegel, M.D. , in the Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. This is why it is of import to show your feelings, expecially your negative feelings, when you are under emphasis. Harmonizing to assorted surveies, making the antonym, stamp downing negative feelings and keeping an wellbeing or positive attitude, does far less to reduces stress than allowing your feelings out. Bing self-asserting in pass oning your feelings, which in bend can take down your emphasis degree, can hold a signifciant consequence on your medical status ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) .

Another writer believes in “minibreaks.” These are two to three minute interruptions in which you stop working and relax. Sit down and acquire comfy, easy take a deep breath in, keep it, and so exhale really easy. At the same clip, allow your shoulder musculuss droop, smile and say something positive like, ‘ I am r-e-l-a-x-e-d.” Be sure to acquire sufficient remainder at dark ( Stress Management: Ten Self-Care Techniques 1986 ) .

Again we have the return of slow and calculated external respiration bespeaking one time once more that it is a cardinal factor in the relaxation procedure. Still another manner that you can break manage emphasis is by going cognizant of your stressors and your emotional and physical reactions to them. You must find what events hurt you and non disregard them. You must supervise what you tell yourself about the events and recognize how your organic structure reacts to them. For illustration, do you go nervous or is it more of a physical reaction? ( Stress Management 1999 ) .

Once you recognize the issues at manus, you must so seek to find what can be changed. Can these stressors be avoided or eliminated all together? Can you cut down their strength? Can you decrease your exposure to them? ( Stress Management 1999 ) . Those are all inquiries that must be considered when finding what your stressors are and your program of action in order to decrease the blow of these harmful stressors.

One unusual manner of get bying with emphasis is to compose about it. Harmonizing to a survey conducted by the Jorunal of the American Medical Association, composing about a nerve-racking experience can assist cut down the symptoms of common diseases, such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) . As portion of the survey, a group of patients was asked to compose for 20 proceedingss a twenty-four hours over three back-to-back yearss about their most nerve-racking life experience. Another group was asked to pass an equal sum of clip composing about their programs for the twenty-four hours ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) .

The consequences indicated that 47 per centum of the patients who wrote about their nerve-racking experiences showed what physicicians determined to be “clinically relevant betterment” in their conditions four months subsequently. A mere 24 per centum of group figure two showed a similar betterment ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) . Besides, turning research has revealed that composing about one’s ideas and feelings can take to betterments in immune operation, fewer visits to the physician and an increased sense of wellbeing ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) .

Since worlds by nature are really societal animals, we need to be around other people, particularly when we are experiencing stressed. Having a supportive household and web of friends is one of the most important ways to cut down emphasis and other medical conditions that are caused or magnified by it. One of the chief mercantile establishments in this type of emphasis decrease is to speak about your troubles with person you trust. This helps alleviate tnsion and may besides assist you get down to work out your jobs. Other people will take an even larger sphere of sociableness. These said people will go to a athleticss event or travel to a religious group, etc. ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) . Still, others will turn to unfortunate mercantile establishments such as imbibing to get by with their nerve-racking lives ( Stress Reduction Techniques 2000 ) .

Another redress to the emphasis bug is to hold a positive mental attitude. Each twenty-four hours, every bit shortly as you wake up, you should perpetrate to holding a good twenty-four hours. Psychologists say that experiencing in control is a major subscriber to cut downing your emphasis. This in bend will do you predisposed to covering with events at work as challenges and opportunies as opposed to jobs. And what approximately something every bit simple as a smiling? People ever underestimate the power of a smiling. Harmonizing to Linda Cruse, “smiling, even thining about smiling, releases endorphins, your organic structure’s natural analgesics” ( Cruse, 1999, p. 65 ) .

Time direction is besides cardinal. When you start a undertaking or undertaking, you should seek to complete it. It is dicouraging to confront a batch of uncomplete undertakings. Along with this, you should carry on your ain clip direction survey. You should look at your whole work hebdomad without prejudice. Try to analyse where the clip goes ( Cruse, 1999, p. 65 ) .

How many hours do you pass working, driving, holding java, chew the fating and so forth? Are you overscheduled? Can you beguile responsiblities? Can you streamline? The better your bird’s-eye position, the more equipt you are to better your usage of clip ( Cruse, 1999, p. 65 ) .

Furthermore, program in progress. A elaborate “to-do” list supports you organized and in control. Divide your list into two parts –” pressing” and “tomorrow.” It is besides wise to ever hold a back-up program. Expect the unexpected, so you’ll be prepared if things don’t travel as planned ( particularly for major events ) ( Cruse, 1999, p.65 ) .

When all is said and done, we can ever deflect ourselves for instant satisfaction. One thought is to state your ABC’s. “When middle-of-the-night concerns loom, dispute yourself to declaim the alphabet in random order, without reiterating any of the letters” ( Escape from the concern trap ) . This undertaking is merely slippery plenty so that there’s no room in your consciousness to believe about anything else. Another signifier of distracion is to utilize your senses. “For some, an act every bit simple as snarling a gum elastic set worn around the carpus or taking a warm, comforting shower can derail the concern train” ( Umansky, 2000, p. 148 ) . It’s about utilizing haptic stimulations to tweak yourself to another topographic point. It’s taking action alternatively of allowing the concern and emphasis act on you ( Umansky, 2000, p. 148 ) .

So, aside from you, who stands to profit from your deficiency of emphasis? EVERYONE. Equally far as work is concerned, there will be less abseenteeism due to stress-related upsets, less worker’s compensation loss due to stress-related unwellness or accidents, improved occupation public presentation, a less nerve-racking, more efficient workplace, improved employee attitude and improved employee overall wellness ( Stress Management 2000: Advantages of Stress Management 2000 ) . As for your ain wellness, there will be decreased stress-related symptoms, improved slumber, decreased anxitety, decreased usage of medicines, reduced hurting, increased ablity to pull off hurting, increased ablitiy to loosen up physiologically and increased sense of control and improved self-pride ( Stress Management 2000: Advantages of Stress Management 2000 ) .

In decision, no affair who you are, what place you hold or what age you are, you are likely sing some grade of emphasis at the workplace. Stress comes in a positive signifier and a really detrimental signifier and it is up to us separately to find one from the other and take action against the latter. Through some research and a small spot of forbearance, anyone can larn how to suppress emphasis and their reactions to it. It is like Abraham Lincoln one time said, “people are every bit happy as they make their heads up to be. ” ;


  1. Mentions Clarke, R. ( 2000, August ) . “Giggle while you work.” Black Enterprise, 31, 214.
  2. Cruse, L. ( 1999, November ) . “Everyday stress busters.” Training and development, 53, p. 65.
  3. “How to assist cut down emphasis in your employees.” ( 2000, September ) . Management, 47, p. 12.
  4. “The key to emphasize direction, keeping, & A; profitableness? More workplace fun.” ( 2000, September ) HR Focus, 77 p. 5.
  5. Markle, J. ( 2000 ) . “Advantages of emphasis management.” Stress direction 2000. hypertext transfer protocol: //
  6. Markle, J. ( 2000 ) . “High cost of stress.” Stress Management 2000. hypertext transfer protocol: //
  7. Stein, R. ( 1983 ) . Personal schemes for populating with less emphasis. New York: John Gallagher Communications Ltd.
  8. “Stress management.” ( 1999 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //
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  12. Yamauchi, K. ( 1986 ) . “Stress direction: ten self-care techniques.”

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