The Axis and its allies controlled all of Europe save Iberia, Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland, Switzerland, Sweden, and Turkey. The Axis also controlled parts of Africa, and large chunks of Asia.
In 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union invaded and partitioned Poland between them. In 1940, Germany invaded Norway, the Low Countries, and France. In 1941, Germany invaded the Balkans, Greece, and the Soviet Union, seizing vast tracts of land and destroying large parts of the poorly prepared Soviet army and air force.
By 1942, the Axis also controlled lands in Africa, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. Large swathes of Asian land were also under Japanese (Axis) control, such as the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Indochina, roughly a third of China, Korea, and a great number of smaller islands scattered across the Pacific.