It deepened the differences and hostilities between the north and south.
The tariff placed a tax on imported goods. It favored the north by encouraging purchases of domestic goods but hurt the south because foreign markets couldn’t buy as much southern cotton.
South Carolina’s response to the tariff was to declare it void. This started off a whole bunch of debates that got pretty hostile. While other states didn’t agree with SC’s action, sectionalism and state’s rights issues flared up again.